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    24th Dynasty. Bocchoris of Sais, 44 years. In his reign, a lamb spoke.

    25th Dynasty. 3 Ethiopian kings:

    • Sabacon, who captured Bocchoris and burnt him alive, ruled for 12 years
    • Sebichos, his son, 12 years
    • Taracus, 20 years
      In total : 44 years

    26th Dynasty. 9 kings of Sais:

    • Ammeres the Ethiopian, (?) 12 years
    • Stephinathis, 7 years
    • Nechepsos, 6 years
    • Nechao, 8 years
    • Psammetichus, 44 years
    • Nechao II, 6 years
      – He captured Jerusalem, and took king Jehoahaz back as a prisoner to Egypt.
    • Psammuthes (Psammetichus) II, 17 years
    • Vaphres, 25 years
      – The remaining Jews fled to him after Jerusalem had been captured by the Assyrians.
    • Amosis, 42 years
      In total : 167 years

    27th Dynasty. 8 Persian kings:

    • [p149] Cambyses, in the 5th year of his reign, ruled the Egyptians for 3 years
    • the magi, 7 months
    • Dareius, 36 years
    • Xerxes, the son of Dareius, 21 years
    • Artaxerxes, 40 years
    • Xerxes II, 2 months
    • Sogdianus, 7 months
    • Dareius, the son of Xerxes, 19 years
      In total : 120 years and 4 months

    28th Dynasty. Amyrtaeus of Sais, 6 years.

    29th Dynasty. 4 kings of Mendes:

    • Nepheretes, 6 years
    • Achoris, 13 years
    • Psammuthes, 1 year
    • Muthes, 1 year
    • Nepherites, 4 months
      In total : 21 years and 4 months

    30th Dynasty. 3 kings of Sebennytus:

    • Nectanebis, 10 years
    • Teōs, 2 years
    • Nectanebus, 8 years
      In total : 20 years

    31st Dynasty. 3 Persian kings:

    • Ochus, in the 20th year of his reign, ruled over Egypt for 6 years
    • Arses, the son of Ochus, 4 years
    • Dareius, who was killed by Alexander the Macedonian, 6 years

    All of the above is contained in the third book of Manetho.

    What follows will be taken from Greek writers, because the kingdom of the Egyptians came to an end at this point. But as Flavius Josephus has produced evidence from the books of Manetho, in his history of the ancestors of the Hebrews, I think that it is right to record his words, which appear in the first [book of] his Antiquity of the Jews, as follows.

    [p151] Josephus, [quoting] from the books of Manetho

    I shall begin with the writings of the Egyptians; not indeed of those that have written in the Egyptian language, which it is impossible for me to do. But Manetho, who was by birth an Egyptian, had some knowledge of Greek learning, as is very evident; for he wrote the history of his own country in the Greek language, by translating it, as he says himself, out of their sacred records; he also finds great fault with Herodotus for his ignorance and inaccuracy about Egyptian history. Now this Manetho, in the second book of his Egyptian History, writes concerning us in the following manner. I will set down his very words, as if I were to bring the very man himself into a court as a witness: “Tutimaeus. In his reign it happened, I know not why, that God was angry with us, and there came, unexpectedly, men of ignoble birth from the east, and they were bold enough to make an expedition into our country, and easily subdued it by force, because we did not even hazard a battle with them. So when they had overpowered our rulers, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and treated all the inhabitants in the most barbarous manner. Some of them they slew, and led their children and their wives into slavery. At length they made one of themselves king, whose name was Salitis; he also lived at Memphis, and he made both the upper and lower regions pay tribute, and left garrisons in places that were the most suitable for them. He chiefly aimed to secure the eastern parts, because he foresaw that the Assyrians, who were the most powerful people of that time, would want to seize his kingdom, and invade it. He found in the Sethroite nome a city very suitable for this purpose, on the east side of the Bubastic channel of the river, which for theological reasons was called Avaris. He rebuilt it, and made it very strong by the walls he built around it, and put in a very large garrison of two hundred and forty thousand armed men, to guard it. [p153] Salitis came there in summer time, partly to gather his corn, and pay his soldiers their wages, and partly to exercise his armed men, and thereby to intimidate foreigners. After this man had reigned nineteen years, another, whose name was Bnon, reigned for forty-four years; after him reigned another, called Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months; after him Apophis reigned sixty-one years, and then Jannas fifty years and one month; after all these, Assis reigned for forty-nine years and two months. And these six were the first rulers among them, who were all along making war with the Egyptians, and wanted gradually to eradicate them. This whole nation was styled Hyksos, that is, ‘shepherd-kings’: for the first syllable hyk, according to the sacred dialect, denotes ‘a king’, and sos is ‘a shepherd’, according to the ordinary dialect; and of these is compounded Hyksos: but some say that these people were Arabians.” Now in another copy it is said that this word does not denote ‘kings’, but, on the contrary, denotes that the shepherds were ‘captives’. For hyk, as well as hak with an aspirate, in the Egyptian language expressly denotes ‘captives’; and this to me seems the more probable opinion, and more in accordance with ancient history.

    “These people, whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants,” as he says, “kept control of Egypt for five hundred and eleven years.” After this, he says, “The kings of Thebais and the other parts of Egypt rebelled against the shepherds, and a terrible and long war was fought between them. A king, whose name was Misphragmuthosis, subdued the shepherds, and after driving them out of the other parts of Egypt, he shut them up in a place [p155] that contained ten thousand arourai; this place was named Avaris.” Manetho adds, “The shepherds built a large and strong wall round all this place, in order to keep all their possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but Thummosis the son of Misphragmuthosis made an attempt to take them by force and by siege, surrounding them with an army of four hundred and eighty thousand men. But, despairing of taking the place by siege, he came to an agreement with them, that they should leave Egypt, and go, without suffering any harm, wherever they chose; and, after this agreement was made, they went away with all their families and possessions, not fewer in number than two hundred and forty thousand, and travelled out of Egypt, through the wilderness, towards Syria. But as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who were then the rulers of Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called Judaea; the city was large enough to contain this great number of men, and they called it Jerusalem.” Now Manetho, in another book of his, says that this nation, thus called ‘shepherds’, were also called ‘captives’, in the sacred books of his country. And this account of his is true; for feeding of sheep was the employment of our forefathers in the most ancient ages, and as they led such a wandering life in feeding sheep, they were called ‘shepherds’. Nor was it without reason that they were called ‘captives’ by the Egyptians, since one of our ancestors, Joseph, told the king of Egypt that he was a captive, and afterwards brought his brothers into Egypt with the king’s permission. But as for these matters, I shall give a more detailed account of them elsewhere.

    But now I shall produce the Egyptians as witnesses to the antiquity of our nation. I shall therefore bring in Manetho again, and what he writes about the sequence of dates. He says: “When this people or shepherds left Egypt and went to Jerusalem, Tethmosis the king of Egypt, who drove them out, reigned for another twenty-five years and four months, and then he died; [p157] after him his son Chebron took the kingdom for thirteen years; after whom came Amenophis, for twenty years and seven months; then came his sister Amesses, for twenty-one years and nine months; then came her son Mephres, for twelve years and nine months; after him was Mephramuthosis, for twenty-five years and ten months; after him was Thmosis, for nine years and eight months; after him came Amenophis, for thirty years and ten months; after him came Orus, for thirty-six years and five months; then came his daughter Acenchres, for twelve years and one month; then was her brother Rathotis, for nine years; then came his son Acencheres, for twelve years and five months; then came another Acencheres, for twelve years and three months; after him Armais, for four years and one month; after him was Ramesses, for one year and four months; after him came Armesses Miamūn, for sixty-six years and two months; after him Amenophis, for nineteen years and six months; after him came Sethosis, also called Ramesses, who had an army of cavalry, and a strong navy. This king appointed his brother, Armais, to be his deputy over Egypt. He also gave him all the other authority of a king, except that he instructed him, that he should not wear the diadem, nor do any harm to the queen, the mother of his children, and that he should not meddle with the other concubines of the king. Then he made an expedition against Cyprus, and Phoenicia, and besides against the Assyrians and the Medes. He subdued them all, some by his arms, some without fighting, and some by the terror of his great army; and being puffed up by the great successes he had had, he went on still more boldly, and overthrew the cities and countries that lay in the east. But after some considerable time, Armais, who was left in Egypt, recklessly did all those very things, which his brother had forbidden him to do. He used violence against the queen, and continued to make use of the rest of the concubines, without sparing any of them. At the persuasion of his friends he put on the diadem, and set up in opposition to his brother. But then the chief of the priests in Egypt wrote letters to Sethosis, and informed him of all that had happened, and how his brother had set up in opposition to him. Sethosis therefore returned back to Pelusium immediately, and recovered his kingdom again.” The country was called Egypt from his name; for Manetho says, that Sethosis was himself called Aegyptus, [p159] and his brother Armais was called Danaus.

    This is Manetho’s account. And it is clear from the number of years allocated by him to this interval, if they are all added together, that these shepherds, as they are here called, were no other than our forefathers, who were delivered out of Egypt, and came from there to inhabit this country, three hundred and ninety-three years before Danaus came to Argos; although the Argives look upon Danaus as their most ancient king. Manetho, therefore, provides evidence from the Egyptians records for two points which are of the greatest consequence to our purpose. In the first place, that we came out of another country into Egypt; and secondly, that our departure from Egypt was so ancient in time as to have preceded the siege of Troy by almost a thousand years. As to those things which Manetho adds, not from the Egyptian records, but, as he confesses himself, from some stories of an uncertain origin, I will disprove them later in detail, and shall demonstrate that they are no better than incredible fables.

    That is what Josephus says in the book which we referred to. He [? Manetho] describes the kings of the Egyptians from the beginning until the end, up until one of the kings that they appointed, called Nectanebus. I have already mentioned Nectanebus earlier on, at the appropriate point in the list of kings. After Nectanebus, Ochus the king of the Persians gained control of Egypt, and ruled over it for 6 years. After him, his son Arses [was king] for 4 years. After him, Dareius [was king] for 6 years. Then Alexander the Macedonian killed Dareius the Persian, and ruled over both the Asians and the Egyptians. Alexander founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt in the sixth year of his reign. After the death of Alexander, his empire was divided between many different rulers, and the Ptolemaei became kings of Egypt and Alexandria. The dates of these kings are as follows.

    The kings of Egypt and the city of Alexandria after the death of Alexander of Macedonia, from the writings of Porphyrius:

    Alexander of Macedonia died in the 114th Olympiad [324 B.C.], after reigning for a total of 12 years. He was succeeded by Aridaeus, also called Philippus, who was a brother of Alexander, but by a different mother; for he was the son of Philippus and Philinna of Larissa. Aridaeus ruled for 7 years, before he was killed in Macedonia by Polysperchon the son of Antipater.

    [p161] A year after Philippus became king, Ptolemaeus the son of Arsinoe and Lagus was sent to be satrap of Egypt. He was satrap for 17 years, and then he was king for 23 years; so altogether he ruled for 40 years, until his death. However, while still alive he abdicated in favour of his son Ptolemaeus, called Philadelphus, and he lived for a further two years after his son had taken over as king; so we reckon the reign of this first Ptolemaeus, called Soter, to be 38 rather than 40 years long.

    He was succeeded by his son Ptolemaeus, who as we said was called Philadelphus. The son reigned for two years while his father was still alive, and then for a further 36 years after his death, so that we reckon the length of his reign to be 38 years, the same as for his father.

    After him, the third Ptolemaeus, called Euergetes, reigned for 25 years.

    After him, the fourth Ptolemaeus, called Philopator, reigned for 17 years.

    After him, the fifth Ptolemaeus, called Epiphanes, reigned for 24 years.

    This Ptolemaeus had two sons, the elder called Philometor and the younger called the second Euergetes, who ruled after him for a combined total of 64 years. We have counted their years together, because they were constantly fighting against each other and alternately gained and lost control of the kingdom, which makes it difficult to calculate their years separately.

    Philometor first ruled on his own for 11 years; but when Antiochus invaded Egypt and removed him from the throne, the inhabitants of Alexandria put the younger brother in charge. Then they forced Antiochus out of Egypt, and freed Philometor. They called that the 12th year of Philometor, and the first year of Euergetes. After that the two kings ruled jointly until the 17th year, but from the 18th year onwards Philometor ruled on his own.

    At that time the elder brother, who had been deposed by the younger brother, was restored by the Romans. [p163] So he ruled in Egypt, and made his brother ruler of Libya instead, and after that Philometor ruled as sole king of Egypt for 18 years. When he died in Syria, which was also under his control, Euergetes was called back from Cyrene and proclaimed king. Euergetes counted his years from the time when he first became king, so that he seems to have reigned for 25  years after his brother’s death, but officially he reigned for 54 years. The 36th year of Philometor should have been called the first year of his reign, but instead he ordered it to be written as the 25th year of his reign. So the combined length of both their reigns is 64 years, 35 years under Philometor and the rest under Euergetes; but to split it up into separate reigns would lead to confusion.

    Ptolemaeus the second Euergetes had two sons by Cleopatra, the elder called Ptolemaeus Soter and the younger called Ptolemaeus Alexander. The elder son was appointed by his mother to reign first; she thought he would obey her, so favoured him for a time. But in the tenth year of his reign he murdered his parents’ friends, and was deposed by his mother because of his cruelty, and fled to Cyprus.

    His mother summoned her younger son from Pelusium, and appointed him to be king along with her. So the younger son ruled jointly with his mother, and the country was governed in both their names; this year was called the 11th year of Cleopatra and the 8th year of Alexander, because Alexander counted his years from the 4th year of his brother’s reign, which was when he started to rule over Cyprus. This state of affairs continued until the death of Cleopatra; after she died, Alexander ruled on his own, and he reigned for 18 years in all after he returned to Alexandria, though officially he reigned for 26 years. In the 19th year, after a dispute with his soldiers, he went away to collect an army to bring to Egypt against them. However they followed him, and under the leadership of a relative of the kings called Tyrrus, [p165] they defeated him in a naval battle. Alexander was forced to take refuge with his wife and daughter in Myra, a city of Lycia; from there, he crossed over to Cyprus, where he was defeated by the admiral Chaereas, and died.

    After his expulsion, the inhabitants of Alexandria sent envoys to the elder brother, Ptolemaeus Soter, and established him as king again, when he had sailed back from Cyprus. Soter lived for another 7 years and 6 months after his return, and the whole period after the death of the brothers’ father was counted in his name, which was a total of 35 years and 6 months. But if we split the period up according to the actual course of events, Ptolemaeus Soter ruled at two different times for a total of 17 years and 6 months, and in between the younger brother, Ptolemaeus Alexander, ruled for 18 years. The inhabitants of Alexandria were unable to completely delete Alexander’s reign from the records, but as far as was in their power they erased all mention of it, because Alexander had assaulted them with the help of some Jews. So they do not count the years of his reign, but attribute the whole 36 years to the elder brother.

    Similarly, they do not attribute the next 6 months after the death of the elder brother, which make up the complete 36 years, to Cleopatra, the daughter of the elder brother and wife of the younger brother, who took over control of the kingdom after the death of her father. Nor do they formally attribute to Alexander the 19 days in which he jointly reigned with her.

    This Alexander was the son of the younger Ptolemaeus, who was also called Alexander, and the stepson of Cleopatra. He was staying in Rome, when he was summoned back to Alexandria because there were no men of the royal family left in Egypt. He married the aforesaid Cleopatra, and when she had willingly handed over power to him, after an interval of 19 days he murdered her. Then he himself was seized and killed by the armed men in the gymnasium, because of the foul murder which he had committed.

    [p167] This Alexander was succeeded by Ptolemaeus, called the new Dionysus, who was the son of Ptolemaeus Soter and the brother of the aforesaid Cleopatra. He reigned for 29 years.

    His daughter Cleopatra was the last of the dynasty of the Ptolemaei. She reigned for 22 years.

    These reigns also did not follow an continuous sequence from start to finish, as laid out in the records, but each of them had some interruptions in the middle of it. In the reign of the new Dionysus, a three year period was ascribed to the rule of his daughters Cleopatra Tryphaena and Berenice, one year as a joint reign and the following two years, after the death of Cleopatra Tryphaena, as the reign of Berenice on her own. Because Ptolemaeus had gone off to Rome, and was spending a long time there, his daughters took over the rule of the kingdom, as if he was not going to return, and Berenice took on some men of the royal family as co-rulers. But when Ptolemaeus returned from Rome, he forget all affection towards his daughter, and in his anger at what she had done, he put her to death.

    In the first years of Cleopatra’s reign, she shared power with her elder brother Ptolemaeus and then with others, for the following reasons. When the new Dionysus died, he left four children, two sons called Ptolemaeus and daughters called Cleopatra and Arsinoe. He handed over power to the two eldest children, Ptolemaeus and Cleopatra, who reigned jointly for 4 years. And this state of affairs would have continued, if Ptolemaeus had not wanted to seize sole power for himself, in contravention of his father’s orders. However he was fated to die soon afterwards, after being defeated in a naval battle by Julius Caesar, who intervened on behalf of Cleopatra.

    After Ptolemaeus’ death, Cleopatra’s younger brother, who was also called Ptolemaeus, became joint ruler with his sister, as proposed by Caesar. The next year was called the fifth year of Cleopatra and the first year of Ptolemaeus, and so it continued for the following two years, [p169] until he died. He was plotted against and killed by Cleopatra, in his 4th year, which was Cleopatra’s 8th year. From then onwards Cleopatra ruled on her own, up until her 15th year. However, her 16th year was also called the first year, because after the death of Lysimachus the king of Chalcis in Syria, the Roman general Marcus Antonius gave Chalcis and the surrounding regions to Cleopatra. And from then onwards for the remaining years up until the 22nd year, which was the last of Cleopatra’s reign, the years were counted in the same way, so that the 22nd year was also called the 7th year.

    Octavius Caesar, also called Augustus, conquered Egypt in the battle of Actium, and succeeded Cleopatra as ruler of Egypt in the second year of the 184th Olympiad [43 B.C.]. From the first year of the 111th Olympiad [336 B.C.], when Aridaeus Philippus became king, until the second year of the 184th Olympiad [43 B.C.], is 73 Olympiads and one additional year. So the total duration of the rule of all the kings of Alexandria, down to the death of Cleopatra, is 293 years.

    So the reign-lengths of the Ptolemaei are as follows:

    Alexander the Macedonian began his reign in the first year of the 111th Olympiad [336 B.C.]. He founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt, and ruled for 12 years and 7 months. After him, the kings of the city of Alexandria and the whole of Egypt were:

    • Ptolemaeus the son of Lagus – for 40 years
    • Ptolemaeus Philadelphus – for 38 years
    • Ptolemaeus Euergetes – for 24 years
    • Ptolemaeus Philopator – for 21 years
    • Ptolemaeus Epiphanes – for 24 years
    • Ptolemaeus Philometor – for 31 years
    • [p171] Ptolemaeus the second Euergetes – for 29 years
    • Ptolemaeus Physcon, or Soter – for 17 years and 6 months
    • Ptolemaeus Alexander, after the expulsion of [Soter], his predecessor – for  years
    • Ptolemaeus Philadelphus, returning from exile after the expulsion of Alexander – for 8 years
    • Ptolemaeus Dionysus, called Philadelphus – for 30 years
    • Cleopatra the daughter of Ptolemaeus – for 22 years
    • In her reign, Gaius Julius Caesar became the first Roman emperor. The next emperor, Octavius Caesar Augustus, called Sebastos in Greek, killed Cleopatra and put an end to the dynasty of the Ptolemaei, who had ruled for 295 years.

    THE GREEKS

    According to the historians of their ancient times.

    • The kings of the Athenians
    • The kings of the Argives
    • The kings of the Sicyonians
    • The kings of the Lacedaemonians
    • The kings of the Corinthians
    • Who ruled the sea, and for how long
    • The individual Olympiads of the Greeks
    • The early kings of the Macedonians
    • The kings of the (?) Macedonians, Thessalians, Syrians and Asians after Alexander

    Dates of the Greeks

    The Sicyonians and their kings are said to be the most ancient of the Greeks. The first king to rule Sicyon was Aegialeus, at the same time as Ninus and Belus, who are the first recorded kings of the Assyrians and of Asia. The Peloponnese was originally called Aegialeia, after this Aegialeus.

    Inachus is said to have been the first king of the Argives, 235 years after the start of the Sicyonian kingdom. [p173] Cecrops, called Diphyes (“two-formed”) was the first king of the Athenians, about 300 years after the start of the Argive kingdom, and 533 years after the start of the Sicyonian kingdom.

    This chronicle will start with the earliest rulers, and first it will give a full list of the kings of the Sicyonians. There is considerable disagreement amongst the older writers who composed chronicles of Greek history; but, as far as possible, we will copy the accounts which are agreed by most writers.

    The chronographer Castor lists the dates of the Sicyonian kings in his chronicle; and then he provides a summary of them, as follows: “We will provide a list of the kings of Sicyon, starting with Aegialeus, the first king, and ending with Zeuxippus. These kings reigned for a total of 959 years. After the kings, six priests of [Apollo] Carneius were appointed; this priesthood lasted for 33 years. Then Charidemus was appointed priest; but he could not bear the expense, and went into exile.”

    That is what Castor wrote. The exact succession of the Sicyonian kings is reckoned as follows.

    The kings of the Sicyonians

    1. Aegialeus, for 52 years.
    The Peloponnese was originally called Aegialeia, after this Aegialeus. He is said to have started to rule Sicyon in the 15th year of Belus, the first king of the Assyrians. According to legend, [Belus] was the son of Poseidon and Libya.

    2. Europs, for 45 years.
    He reigned at the same time as Ninus, the son of Belus.

    3. Telchin, for 20 years.
    He reigned at the same time as Semiramis.

    4. Apis, for 25 years.
    The Peloponnese was then called Apia, after this Apis.

    5. Thelxion, for 52 years.

    6. Aegydrus, for 34 years.

    7. Thurimachus, for 45 years.
    During his reign, Inachus became the first king of the Argives.

    8. [p175] Leucippus, for 53 years.

    9. Messapus, for 47 years.
    During his reign Egypt was ruled by Joseph, as the Hebrews record.

    10. Eratus, for 46 years.

    11. Plemnaeus, for 48 years.

    12. Orthopolis, for 63 years.

    13. Marathonius, for 30 years.
    During his reign, Cecrops Diphyes became the first king of Attica.

    14. Marathus, for 20 years.
    During his reign, Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt, as will be shown in due course.

    15. Echyreus, for 55 years.
    During his reign, Danaus became king of the Argives.

    16. Corax, for 30 years.

    17. Epopeus, for 35 years.

    18. Laomedon, for 40 years.

    19. Sicyon, for 45 years.
    During his reign, the kingdom of the Argives came to an end, after lasting for 540 years.

    20. Polybus, for 40 years.

    21. Inachus, for 40 years.

    22. Phaestus, for 8 years.

    23. Adrastus, for 4 years.

    24. Polypheides, for 31 years.
    During his reign, Troy was captured.

    25. Pelasgus, for 20 years.
    During his reign, Aeneias was king of the Latins.

    26. Zeuxippus, for 31 years.

    In all, there were 26 kings of Sicyon, who reigned for 959 years. After Zeuxippus, there were no more kings, and instead there were priests of [Apollo] Carneius.

    1. The first priest was Archelaus, for one year.

    2. Automedon, for one year.

    3. Theoclytus, for four years.

    4. Euneus, for six years.

    5. Theonomus, for nine years.

    6. [p177] Amphigyes, for (?) twelve years.

    7. Lastly, Charidemus for one year. He could not bear the expense, and went into exile. He was priest (?) 352 years before the first Olympiad [i.e. 1128 B.C.].

    The total duration of the kings and priests of the Sicyonians was 998 years.

    After the rulers of the Sicyonians, it will be fitting to give a summary of the kings of the Argives, as far as can be established from the ancient histories. Castor mentions them in these words.

    Castor, about the kings of the Argives:
    Next we will list the kings of the Argives, starting with Inachus and ending with Sthenelus the son of Crotopus. These kings reigned for a total of 382 years, until Sthenelus was driven out by Danaus, who seized control of Argos. The descendants of Danaus ruled Argos for 162 years, ending with Eurysthenes, the son of Sthenelus, the son of Perseus. After Eurysthenes, the descendants of Pelops ruled Argos for (?) 105 years, starting with Atreus, and ending with Penthilus, Tisamenus and Cometes (?) the son of Orestes, in whose time occurred the invasion of the Heracleidae. The dates of each of the Argive kings are as follows.

    The kings of the Argives

    1. Inachus, for 50 years.
    The country was called Inachia, after this Inachus. He began to rule the Argives at the time of Thurimachus, who was the seventh king of the Sicyonians.

    2. Phoroneus, for 60 years.
    In his reign, Ogygus founded Eleusis.

    3. Apis, for 35 years.
    The country was then called Apia, after this Apis. During his reign, Joseph governed the Egyptians, as recorded by the Hebrews.

    4. Argus, the son of Zeus and Niobe, for 70 years.
    The name of the country was changed to Argeia, after this Argus.

    5. Criasus, for 54 years.

    6. Phorbas, for 35 years.
    During his reign, Cecrops Diphyes became king of the Athenians.

    7. [p179] Triopas, for 46 years.
    During his reign, Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt.

    8. Crotopus, for 21 years.

    9. Sthenelus, for 11 years.
    In all, these kings reigned for 382 years.
    Danaus drove out Sthenelus, and ruled Argos, as did his descendants after him. The succession of kings, and their dates, are as follows.

    10. Danaus, for 50 years.

    11. Lynceus, for 41 years.

    12. Abas, for 23 years.

    13. Proetus, for 17 years.

    14. Acrisius, for 31 years.

    In all, there were rulers of Argos for a period of 544 years, until the end of Danaidae.

    After Acrisius, the Argives began to be ruled from Mycenaae, when the descendants of Pelops took over the kingdom, in the time of Eurysthenes the son of Sthenelus. Pelops was the first ruler of the Peloponnese, and he organised the Olympic games.

    After Acrisius, when the Argives began to be ruled from Mycenae:

    • Eurysthenes was king for 45 years.
    • Then the sons of Pelops, Atreus and Thyestes, for 65 years.
    • After them, Agamemnon, for 30 years. In the 18th year of his reign, Troy was captured.
    • Aegisthus, for 17 years.
    • Orestes, Tisamenus, Penthilus and Cometes for 58 years, until the return of the Heracleidae, when they conquered the Peloponnese. From the return of the Heracleidae until the migration of the Ionians, there are (?) 60 years. From the migration of the Ionians until the first Olympiad [776 B.C.], there are 267 years.

    Next it will be fitting to provide a list of the kings of Athenians, by summarising the accounts of some of the ancient historians.

    Ogygus is said to have been the first [king] of the Athenians; [p181] the Greeks relate that their great ancient flood happened in his reign. Phoroneus the son of Inachus, king of the Argives, is said to have lived at the same time. Plato mentions this in the Timaeus [ 22 ], as follows: “When he wished to introduce them to ancient history, so that they could discuss the antiquity of this city, he started his account with the old stories about Phoroneus and Niobe, and then what happened after the flood.” Ogygus lived in the time of Messapus, the ninth king of Sicyon, and Belochus, the eighth king of the Assyrians.

    After Ogygus, because of the great destruction caused by the flood, Attica remained without a king for 190 years, until the time of Cecrops. The number of years is reckoned from the kings of the Argives, who began before Ogygus. From the end of the reign of Phoroneus, king of the Argives, in whose time Ogygus’ flood is said to have happened, until Phorbas, in whose time Cecrops became king of Attica, is a period of 190 years. From Cecrops until the first Olympiad, there are counted seventeen kings, and twelve archons for life; in this time, the marvellous myths of the Greeks are said to have occurred. The Greeks count the kings of Attica from [Cecrops], because they do not know for certain the dates of any earlier kings. Castor explained this in the summary of this history, as follows.

    Castor, about the kings of the Athenians:
    We will now list the kings of the Athenians, starting with Cecrops, called Diphyes, and ending with Thymoetes. The total duration of the reigns of all these kings, called Erechtheidae, was 450 years. After them, Melanthus of Pylus, son of Andropompus, became king, [p183] followed by his son Codrus. The total duration of their two reigns was (?) 58 years. [When the kings came to an end, they were replaced by archons who ruled for life], starting with (?) Medon son of Codrus, and ending with Alcmaeon son of Aeschylus. The total duration of the rule of the archons for life was 209 years. The next archons held power for 10 years each; there were seven of these archons, and altogether they ruled for 70 years. Then the archons started to hold power for one year each, starting with Creon and ending with Theophemus, in whose time the history and glorious achievements of our country came to a complete end.

    That is what Castor wrote. Now we will provide a list of each of the kings.

    The kings of the Athenians

    1. Cecrops Diphyes, for 50 years.
    In his reign lived Prometheus, Epimetheus and Atlas. He started to rule the Athenians in the time of Triopas, the seventh king of the Argives, and Marathonius, the thirteenth king of Sicyon.
    At this time, Moses was prominent amongst the Hebrews, as we will show in due course.
    Also in his reign, the flood of Deucalion is said to have engulfed Thessaly, just as fire devastated the land of Ethiopia in the time of Phaethon.

    2. Cranaus, an aboriginal, for 9 years.

    3. Amphictyon, the son of Deucalion and son-in-law of Cranaus, for (?) 10 years.
    The deeds of the Danaidae are said to have occurred in his reign.

    4. Erichthonius, the son of Hephaestus, who is called Erechtheus by Homerus, for 50 years.
    The Idaean Dactyls lived in his reign.

    5. Pandion, the son of Erichthonius, for 40 years.
    The rape of Core [Persephone], and what is related about Triptolemus, occurred in his reign.

    6. [p185] Erechtheus the son of Pandion, for 50 years.
    The deeds of Perseus occurred in his reign.

    7. Cecrops, the brother of Erechtheus, for 40 years.
    The deeds of Dionysus occurred in his reign.

    8. Pandion, the son of Erechtheus, for 25 years.
    Afterwards Pandion went into exile, and became king of Megara.
    The deeds of Europa, Cadmus and the Sparti occurred in his reign.

    9. Aegeus, the son of Pandion, for 48 years.
    The deeds of the Argonauts and the Centaurs occurred in his reign; and Heracles held the athletic games.

    10. Theseus, the son of Aegeus, for 30 years.
    In his reign, Minos established laws.

    11. Menestheus, the son of Peteus, son of Orneus son of Erechtheus, for 23 years.
    In his reign, Troy was captured.

    12. Demophon, the son of Theseus, for 33 years.
    The deeds of Odysseus and Orestes occurred in his reign; and Aeneias was king of Lavinium.

    13. Oxyntes, the son of Demophon, for 12 years.
    In his reign, the Amazons burnt down the temple at Ephesus.

    14. Apheidas, the son of Oxyntes, for one year.

    15. Thymoetes, the brother of Apheidas, for 8 years.

    16. Melanthus of Pylus, the son of Andropompus, for 37 years.
    In his reign the Heracleidae returned and occupied the Peloponnese.

    17. Codrus, the son of Melanthus, for 21 years.
    In his reign, the Ionians were driven out of Achaea, and took refuge in Athens.

    18. Archons of the Athenians, who held power for life

    19. Medon, the son of Codrus, for 20 years.

    20. Acastus, the son of Medon, for 36 years.
    In his reign occurred the migration of the Ionians, [p187] including Homerus, so they say.
    At the same time, Solomon built the temple at Jerusalem, as will be shown in due course.

    21. Archippus, the son of Acastus, for 19 years.

    22. Thersippus, the son of Archippus, for 41 years.

    23. Phorbas, the son of Thersippus, for 30 years.

    24. Megacles, the son of Phorbas, for 30 years.

    25. Diognetus, the son of Megacles, for 28 years.
    At this time, Lycurgus was in his prime.

    26. Pherecles, the son of Diognetus, for 19 years.

    27. Ariphron, the son of Pherecles, for 20 years.
    At this time, the kingdom of the Assyrians came to an end, and Sardanapalus was killed.

    28. Thespieus, the son of Ariphron, for 27 years.
    At this time, Lycurgus established laws for the Spartans.

    29. Agamestor, the son of Thespieus, for 17 years.

    30. Aeschylus, the son of Agamestor, for 23 years.
    In his twelfth year, the first Olympiad was held, in which Coroebus won the stadion contest.

    31. The total duration of the Athenian rulers, from Cecrops down to the first Olympiad [776 B.C.], was 780 years; from Ogygus to the first Olympiad, there were 970 years. From this time onwards, it is convenient to calculate dates according to the Olympiads.

    32. After Aeschylus, Alcmaeon ruled the Athenians, for 2 years.

    [p189] After Alcmaeon, the Athenians decided to appoint archons for ten years each:

    • Charops, for ten years.
    • Aesimides, for ten years.
    • Cleidicus, for ten years.
    • Hippomenes, for ten years.
    • Leocrates, for ten years.
    • Apsander, for ten years.
    • Eryxias, for ten years.

    After this, they decided to appoint archons for one year each. The first annual archon was Creon, in the 24th Olympiad [684-681 B.C.]. From that time onwards, an archon was appointed for each year; but it is not necessary to list their names.

    This concludes the summary of the dates of the ancient rulers of the Athenians, as related by the older and more reliable historians. We have set down the dates and events before the capture of Troy, which are not reliably recorded, as well as we can from the different accounts. Nor are the events from the capture of Troy until the first Olympiad accurately recorded. However Porphyrius, in the first book of his Philosophical History, gives a summary in the following words:

    “Apollodorus says that there are 80 years from the capture of Troy [1183 B.C.] until the expedition of the Heracleidae to the Peloponnese [1103 B.C.]; there are 60 years from the return of the Heracleidae until the settling of Ionia [1043 B.C.]; there are 159 years from then until Lycurgus [884 B.C.]; and there are 108 years from Lycurgus until the first Olympiad [776 B.C.]. Altogether, there are 407 years from the capture of Troy until the first Olympiad.”

    Next, it will be fitting to give an account of the Olympiads as they are recorded by the Greeks.

    [p191]Olympiads of the Greeks

    • First Olympiad: in which Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race.
      From this time onwards, the dates of the Greeks seem to have been accurately recorded; before then, the dates are supplied according to the whim of each writer.

    About the institution of the Olympic Games

    It is necessary to say a little about the origin of the games. Some writers, who trace back the institution of the games to the earliest times, say that they had been held before Heracles, by one of the Idaean Dactyls; and then by Aethlius, as a challenge for his sons (from his name, the competitors were called athletes); and then by his son Epeius; and then Endymion, Alexinus and Oenomaus were each in charge of the sacred festival. Then Pelops held the games in honour of his father Zeus; and next, Heracles the son of Alcmene. There were ten generations (or, according to some, only three complete festivals) from Heracles until the time of Iphitus.

    Iphitus was a citizen of Elis, who was concerned about the condition of Greece, and wished to rid the cities of their wars. He sent envoys from the whole of the Peloponnese to consult [the god] about release from the wars which gripped them. The god gave this response to the Peloponnesians:

    You who dwell in the Peloponnese, gather round the altar;
    Make sacrifice, and obey the instructions of the prophets.

    He added these words to the Eleians:

    Eleian servants of the gods, who maintain your ancestral rites,
    Protect your homeland, and desist from war.
    Lead the Greeks in mutually just friendship,
    Until the gathering comes in the year of good will.

    [p193] As a result of this, Iphitus proclaimed the truce [which had been fixed by Heracles at the summer solstice; they no longer fought against each other,] and he organised the games together with Lycurgus, who happened to be his relative because they were both descended from Heracles. On this occasion, the only contest was the stadion race; later the other contests were added in their turn.

    Aristodemus of Elis relates that the victors in the athletic contests began to be registered in the 27th Olympiad after Iphitus. Before then, no-one had thought to record the athletes’ names. In the 28th Olympiad Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race, and he was the first victor to be registered. This was then established as the first Olympiad, from which the Greeks calculate their dates.

    Polybius says the same as Aristodemus; but Callimachus says that thirteen Olympiads passed after Iphitus without victors being registered; and Coroebus was the victor in the 14th Olympiad. Many writers state that the institution of the games by Heracles the son of Alcmene occurred (?) 419 years before what is counted as the first Olympiad. The Eleians hold the games every fifth year, with a gap of four years in between them.

    The Greek Olympiads, from the first Olympiad up until the 247th, when Antoninus the son of Severus was emperor of the Romans:

    1st Olympiad [776 B.C.] – Coroebus of Elis was the victor in the stadion race.
    The stadion race was the only contest for the first thirteen Olympiads.

    2nd [772 B.C.] – Antimachus of Elis, stadion race

    3rd [768 B.C.] – Androclus of Messenia, stadion race
    [At this time] Romulus and Remus were born.

    [p195] 4th [764 B.C.] – Polychares of Messenia, stadion race

    5th [760 B.C.] – Aeschines of Elis, stadion race

    6th [756 B.C.] – Oebotas of Dyme, stadion race

    7th [752 B.C.] – Diocles of Messenia, stadion race

    8th [748 B.C.] – Anticles of Messenia, stadion race

    9th [744 B.C.] – Xenocles of Messenia, stadion race

    10th [740 B.C.] – Dotades of Messenia, stadion race

    11th [736 B.C.] – Leochares of Messenia, stadion race

    12th [732 B.C.] – Oxythemis of Coroneia, stadion race

    13th [728 B.C.] – Diocles of Corinth, stadion race

    14th [724 B.C.] – Desmon of Corinth, stadion race
    A double race was added, which was won by Hypenus of Elis.

    15th [720 B.C.] – Orsippus of Megara, stadion race
    A long race was added, and the runners were naked; the winner was Acanthus of Laconia.

    16th [716 B.C.] – Pythagoras of Laconia, stadion race

    17th [712 B.C.] – Polus of Epidaurus, stadion race

    18th [708 B.C.] – Tellis of Sicyon, stadion race
    A wresting contest was added, and the winner was Eurybatus of Laconia.
    A pentathlon contest was also added, and the winner was Lampis of Laconia.

    19th [704 B.C.] – Menus of Megara, stadion race

    20th [700 B.C.] – Atheradas of Laconia, stadion race

    21st [696 B.C.] – Pantacles of Athens, stadion race

    22nd [692 B.C.] – Pantacles for a second time

    23rd [688 B.C.] – Icarius of Hyperesia, stadion race
    A boxing contest was added, and the winner was Onomastus of Smyrna. It was Onomastus who established the rules of boxing.

    24th [684 B.C.] – Cleoptolemus of Laconia, stadion race

    25th [680 B.C.] – Thalpis of Laconia, stadion race
    A race was added for chariots drawn by four horses, and the winner was Pagon of Thebes.

    [p197] 26th [676 B.C.] – Callisthenes of Laconia, stadion race
    Philombrotus of Laconia won the pentathlon at three Olympic games.
    The Carneia, a contest for citharodes, was held for the first time at Sparta.

    27th [672 B.C.] – Eurybus of Athens, stadion race

    28th [668 B.C.] – Charmis of Laconia, stadion race
    Charmis trained on a diet of dried figs.
    These games were held by the inhabitants of Pisa, because Elis was preoccupied by a war against Dyme.

    29th [664 B.C.] – Chionis of Laconia, stadion race
    Chionis could leap a distance of 22 feet.

    30th [660 B.C.] – Chionis for a second time
    The inhabitants of Pisa defected from Elis, and supervised these and the following 22 games.

    31st [656 B.C.] – Chionis of Laconia for a third time, stadion race

    32nd [652 B.C.] – Cratinus of Megara, stadion race
    At these games, Comaeus was the third of his brothers to win the boxing contest.

    33rd [648 B.C.] – Gylis of Laconia, stadion race
    At these games, a pancratium contest was added, and the winner was Lygdamis of Syracuse. Lygdamis was massive; he measured out the stadion with his feet, in only six hundred paces.
    A horse race was added, and the winner was Craxilas of Thessaly.

    34th [644 B.C.] – Stomas of Athens, stadion race

    35th [640 B.C.] – Sphaerus of Laconia, stadion race
    The double race was won by Cylon of Athens, who later attempted to set himself up as tyrant.

    [p199] 36th [636 B.C.] – Phrynon of Athens, stadion race
    Phrynon was killed in single combat with Pittacus.

    37th [632 B.C.] – Eurycleidas of Laconia, stadion race
    A stadion race for boys was added, and the winner was Polynices of Elis.
    A wrestling contest for boys was added, and the winner was Hipposthenes of Laconia, who won the men’s wrestling contest five times in a row, starting from the next-but-one Olympic games.

    38th [628 B.C.] – Olyntheus of Laconia, stadion race
    A pancratium contest for boys was added, but only on this one occasion. The winner was Deutelidas of Laconia.

    39th [624 B.C.] – Rhipsolaus of Laconia, stadion race

    40th [620 B.C.] – Olyntheus of Laconia for a second time, stadion race

    41st [616 B.C.] – Cleondas of Thebes, stadion race
    A boxing contest for boys was added, and the winner was Philotas of Sybaris.

    42nd [612 B.C.] – Lycotas of Laconia, stadion race

    43rd [608 B.C.] – Cleon of Epidaurus, stadion race

    44th [604 B.C.] – Gelon of Laconia, stadion race

    45th [600 B.C.] – Anticrates of Epidaurus, stadion race

    46th [596 B.C.] – Chrysamaxus of Laconia, stadion race
    The boys’ stadion race was won by Polymnestor of Miletus, who chased and caught a hare while he was tending goats.

    47th [592 B.C.] – Eurycles of Laconia, stadion race

    48th [588 B.C.] – Glycon of Croton, stadion race
    Pythagoras of Samos was excluded from the boys’ boxing contest and was mocked for being effeminate, but he went on to the men’s contest and defeated all his opponents.

    49th [584 B.C.] – Lycinus of Croton, stadion race

    [p201] 50th [580 B.C.] – Epitelidas of Laconia, stadion race
    [At this time] the seven wise men were identified.

    51st [576 B.C.] – Eratosthenes of Croton, stadion race

    52nd [572 B.C.] – Agis of Elis, stadion race

    53rd [568 B.C.] – Hagnon of Peparethus, stadion race

    54th [564 B.C.] – Hippostratus of Croton, stadion race
    Arichion of Phigaleia was (?) strangled and died, while winning the pancratium contest for the third time, and though dead he was crowned as victor, because his opponent had already conceded defeat, after his leg was broken by Arichion.

    55th [560 B.C.] – Hippostratus for a second time
    [At this time] Cyrus became king of the Persians.

    56th [556 B.C.] – Phaedrus of Pharsalus, stadion race

    57th [552 B.C.] – Ladromus of Laconia, stadion race

    58th [548 B.C.] – Diognetus of Croton, stadion race

    59th [544 B.C.] – Archilochus of Corcyra, stadion race

    60th [540 B.C.] – Apellaeus of Elis, stadion race

    61st [536 B.C.] – Agatharchus of Corcyra, stadion race

    62nd [532 B.C.] – Eryxias of Chalcis, stadion race
    Milon of Croton won the wrestling contest. He won six times at the Olympic games, six times at the Pythian games, ten times at the Isthmian games, and nine times at the Nemean games.

    63rd [528 B.C.] – Parmenides of Camarina, stadion race

    64th [524 B.C.] – Menander of Thessaly, stadion race

    65th [520 B.C.] – Anochas of Tarentum, stadion race
    A race in full armour was added, and the winner was Damaretus of Heraea.

    66th [516 B.C.] – Ischyrus of Himera, stadion race

    67th [512 B.C.] – Phanas of Pellene, stadion race
    Phanas was the first to win all three races, the stadion race, the double race and the race in full armour.

    68th [508 B.C.] – Isomachus of Croton, stadion race

    69th [504 B.C.] – Isomachus for a second time

    [p203] 70th [500 B.C.] – Nicasias of Opus, stadion race

    71st [496 B.C.] – Tisicrates of Croton, stadion race

    72nd [492 B.C.] – Tisicrates for a second time

    73rd [488 B.C.] – Astyalus of Croton, stadion race

    74th [484 B.C.] – Astyalus for a second time

    75th [480 B.C.] – Astyalus for a third time

    76th [476 B.C.] – Scamander of Mytilene, stadion race

    77th [472 B.C.] – Dandes of Argos, stadion race

    78th [468 B.C.] – Parmenides of Poseidonia, stadion race

    79th [464 B.C.] – Xenophon of Corinth, stadion race

    80th [460 B.C.] – Torymmas of Thessaly, stadion race
    The wrestling contest was won by Amesinas of Barce, who trained by wrestling with a bull while he was tending cattle. He even brought the bull to Pisa to help his training.

    81st [456 B.C.] – Polymnastus of Cyrene, stadion race

    82nd [452 B.C.] – Lycus of Larissa, stadion race

    83rd [448 B.C.] – Crisson of Himera, stadion race

    84th [444 B.C.] – Crisson for a second time

    85th [440 B.C.] – Crisson for a third time

    86th [436 B.C.] – Theopompus of Thessaly, stadion race

    87th [432 B.C.] – Sophron of Ambracia, stadion race
    During this [Olympiad], the Peloponnesian war began.

    88th [428 B.C.] – Symmachus of Messenia, stadion race

    89th [424 B.C.] – Symmachus for a second time

    90th [420 B.C.] – Hyperbius of Syracuse, stadion race

    91st [416 B.C.] – Exagentus of Acragas, stadion race

    92nd [412 B.C.] – Exagentus for a second time

    93rd [408 B.C.] – Eubatus of Cyrene, stadion race
    The pancratium contest was won by Polydamas of Scotussa, a massive man who, when he was with Ochus amongst the Persians, killed lions and fought without weapons against armed men; he even brought chariots charging at full speed to a halt.
    A race was added for chariots drawn by a pair of horses, and the winner was Euagoras of Elis.

    94th [404 B.C.] – Crocinas of Larissa, stadion race

    95th [400 B.C.] – Minon of Athens, stadion race

    96th [396 B.C.] – Eupolemus of Elis, stadion race
    A contest for trumpeters was added, and the winner was Timaeus of Elis.
    [p205] A contest for heralds was added, and the winner was Crates of Elis.

    97th [392 B.C.] – Terinaeus [of …], stadion race

    98th [388 B.C.] – Sosippus of Delphi, stadion race
    The wrestling contest was won by Aristodemus of Elis, whom no-one could grasp round the middle.

    99th [384 B.C.] – Dicon of Syracuse, stadion race
    A race was added for chariots drawn by four foals, and the winner was Eurybatus of Laconia.

    100th [380 B.C.] – Dionysodorus of Tarentum, stadion race

    101st [376 B.C.] – Damon of Thurii, stadion race

    102nd [372 B.C.] – Damon for a second time

    103rd [368 B.C.] – Pythostratus of Ephesus, stadion race

    104th [364 B.C.] – Phocides of Athens, wrestling
    These games were held by the inhabitants of Pisa.

    105th [360 B.C.] – Porus of Cyrene, stadion race

    106th [356 B.C.] – Porus for a second time

    107th [352 B.C.] – Micrinas of Tarentum, stadion race

    108th [348 B.C.] – Polycles of Cyrene, stadion race

    109th [344 B.C.] – Aristolochus of Athens, stadion race

    110th [340 B.C.] – (?) Anticles of Athens, stadion race

    111th [336 B.C.] – Cleomantis of Cleitor, stadion race

    112th [332 B.C.] – Eurylas of Chalcis, stadion race
    [At this time] Alexander captured Babylon, and killed Dareius.

    113th [328 B.C.] – Cliton of Macedonia, stadion race
    Ageus of Argos, [victor in] the long race, returned to Argos and announced his own victory on the same day.

    114th [324 B.C.] – Micinas of Rhodes, stadion race
    [At this time] Alexander died, and his empire was split between many rulers; Ptolemaeus became king of Egypt and Alexandria.

    115th [320 B.C.] – Damasias of Amphipolis, stadion race

    116th [316 B.C.] – Demosthenes of Laconia, stadion race

    117th [312 B.C.] – Parmenides of Mytilene, stadion race

    118th [308 B.C.] – Andromenes of Corinth, stadion race
    Antenor of Athens or Miletus, undisputed [victor in] the pancratium, was victor at all the major games, undefeated in each of three age [p207] groups.

    119th [304 B.C.] – Andromenes of Corinth, stadion race

    120th [300 B.C.] – Pythagoras of Magnesia-on-Maeander, stadion race
    Ceras of Argos, [victor in] wrestling, tore the hooves off a cow.

    121st [296 B.C.] – Pythagoras for a second time

    122nd [292 B.C.] – Antigonus of Macedonia, stadion race

    123rd [288 B.C.] – Antigonus for a second time

    124th [284 B.C.] – Philomelus of Pharsalus, stadion race

    125th [280 B.C.] – Ladas of Aegium, stadion race

    126th [276 B.C.] – Idaeus or Nicator of Cyrene, stadion race

    127th [272 B.C.] – Perigenes of Alexandria, stadion race

    128th [268 B.C.] – Seleucus of Macedonia, stadion race

    129th [264 B.C.] – Philinus of Cos, stadion race
    A new race for two-foal chariots was introduced, and the first winner was Philistiachus [Bilistiche of Macedonia].

    130th [260 B.C.] – Philinus for a second time

    131st [256 B.C.] – Ammonius of Alexandria, stadion race
    A one-foal race was introduced, and the first winner was Hippocrates [of Thessaly].

    132nd [252 B.C.] – Xenophanes of Amphissa in Aetolia, stadion race

    133rd [248 B.C.] – Simylus of Neapolis, stadion race
    [At this time] the Parthians revolted against the Macedonians; their first king was Arsaces, from whom the kings are called the Arsacids.

    134th [244 B.C.] – Alcides of Laconia, stadion race

    135th [240 B.C.] – Eraton of Aetolia, stadion race
    Cleoxenus of Alexandria, [victor in] boxing, won without injury at all the major games.

    136th [236 B.C.] – Pythocles of Sicyon, stadion race

    137th [232 B.C.] – Menestheus of [?] Barcyla, stadion race

    138th [228 B.C.] – Demetrius of Alexandria, stadion race

    139th [224 B.C.] – Iolaidas of Argos, stadion race

    140th [220 B.C.] – Zopyrus of Syracuse, stadion race

    141st [216 B.C.] – Dorotheus of Rhodes, stadion race

    142nd [212 B.C.] – Crates of Alexandria, stadion race
    [p209] Caprus of Elis won both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions, like Heracles; so he was acclaimed as “second after Heracles”.

    143rd [208 B.C.] – Heracleitus of Samos, stadion race

    144th [204 B.C.] – Heracleides of Salamis in Cyprus, stadion race

    145th [200 B.C.] – Pyrrhias of Aetolia, stadion race
    Moschus of Colophon, [victor in] boys’ boxing, was the only boy to have won the boxing competition at all the major games. A boys’ pancratium competition was introduced, and the first winner was Phaedimus of Alexandria.

    146th [196 B.C.] – Micion of Boeotia, stadion race

    147th [192 B.C.] – Agemachus of Cyzicus, stadion race
    Cleitostratus of Rhodes, [victor in] wrestling, overcame his opponents by grasping their necks.

    148th [188 B.C.] – Arcesilaus of Megalopolis, stadion race

    149th [184 B.C.] – Hippostratus of Seleucia in Pieria, stadion race

    150th [180 B.C.] – Onesicritus of Salamis, stadion race

    151st [176 B.C.] – Thymilus of Aspendus, stadion race

    152nd [172 B.C.] – Democritus of Megara, stadion race

    153rd [168 B.C.] – Aristander of Antissa in Lesbos, stadion race

    154th [164 B.C.] – Leonidas of Rhodes, three times victor in the stadion race

    155th [160 B.C.] – Leonidas for a second time

    156th [156 B.C.] – Leonidas for a third time
    Aristomenes of Rhodes was the third after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.

    157th [152 B.C.] – Leonidas, victor in the stadion race for a fourth time, was the first and only man to win 12 Olympic crowns over four Olympiads.

    158th [148 B.C.] – Othon of Syracuse, stadion race

    159th [144 B.C.] – Alcimus of Cyzicus, stadion race

    160th [140 B.C.] – Agnodorus of Cyzicus, stadion race

    161st [136 B.C.] – Antipater of Epirus, stadion race

    162nd [132 B.C.] – Damon of Delphi, stadion race

    163rd [128 B.C.] – Timotheus of Tralles, stadion race

    164th [124 B.C.] – Boeotus of Sicyon, stadion race

    [p211] 165th [120 B.C.] – Acusilaus of Cyrene, stadion race

    166th [116 B.C.] – Chrysogonus of Nicaea, stadion race

    167th [112 B.C.] – Chrysogonus for a second time

    168th [108 B.C.] – Nicomachus of Philadelphia, stadion race

    169th [104 B.C.] – Nicodemus of Lacedaemon, stadion race

    170th [100 B.C.] – Simmias of Seleuceia-on-Tigris, stadion race

    171st [96 B.C.] – Parmeniscus of Corcyra, stadion race

    172nd [92 B.C.] – Eudamus of Cos, stadion race
    Protophanes of Magnesia-on-Maeander was the fourth after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.

    173rd [88 B.C.] – Parmeniscus of Corcyra again, stadion race

    174th [84 B.C.] – Demostratus of Larissa, stadion race

    175th [80 B.C.] – Epaenetus of Argos, boys’ stadion race
    There was no stadion race for adults this year, because Sulla had summoned all the athletes to Rome.

    176th [76 B.C.] – Dion of Cyparissus, stadion race

    177th [72 B.C.] – Hecatomnos of Elis, stadion race

    178th [68 B.C.] – Diocles [?] Hypopenus, stadion race
    Stratonicus of Alexandria, son of Corragus, was the fifth after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions; at the Nemean games, he won four crowns on the same day in the boys’ and youths’ competitions, [though he attended the competitions without a horse. He achieved this through the favour of his friends or the kings, and therefore he was regarded as disqualified].

    179th [64 B.C.] – Andreas of Lacedaemon, stadion race

    180th [60 B.C.] – Andromachus of Ambracia, stadion race

    181st [56 B.C.] – Lamachus of Tauromenium, stadion race

    182nd [52 B.C.] – Anthestion of Argos, stadion race
    [p213] Marion of Alexandria, son of Marion, was the sixth after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.

    183rd [48 B.C.] – Theodorus of Messene, stadion race
    [At this time] Julius Caesar was emperor of the Romans.

    184th [44 B.C.] – Theodorus for a second time
    [At this time] Augustus became emperor of the Romans.

    185th [40 B.C.] – Ariston of Thurii, stadion race

    186th [36 B.C.] – Scamander of Alexandria Troas, stadion race

    187th [32 B.C.] – Ariston of Thurii again, stadion race

    188th [28 B.C.] – Sopater of Argos, stadion race

    189th [24 B.C.] – Asclepiades of Sidon, stadion race

    190th [20 B.C.] – Auphidius of Patrae, stadion race

    191st [16 B.C.] – Diodotus of Tyana, stadion race

    192nd [12 B.C.] – Diophanes of Aeolis, stadion race

    193rd [8 B.C.] – Artemidorus of Thyateira, stadion race

    194th [4 B.C.] – Demaratus of Ephesus, stadion race

    195th [1 A.D.] – Demaratus for a second time

    196th [5 A.D.] – Pammenes of Magnesia-on-Maeander, stadion race

    197th [9 A.D.] – Asiaticus of Halicarnassus, stadion race

    198th [13 A.D.] – Diophanes of Prusa [by Mt. Olympus], stadion race
    Aristeas of Stratoniceia or (?) Maeander was the seventh after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions.
    [At this time] Tiberius became emperor of the Romans.

    199th [17 A.D.] – Aeschines Glaucias of Miletus, stadion race
    The four-horse race which had been stopped a long time ago was reinstated, and the winner was Tiberius Caesar.

    200th [21 A.D.] – Polemon of Petra, stadion race

    201st [25 A.D.] – Damasias of Cydonia, stadion race

    202nd [29 A.D.] – Hermogenes of Pergamum, stadion race

    203rd [33 A.D.] – Apollonius of Epidaurus, stadion race

    204th [37 A.D.] – Sarapion of Alexandria, stadion race
    Neicostratus of Aegae was the eighth and last after Heracles to win both the wrestling and the pancratium competitions. [p215] Only eight men between Heracles and our times have achieved this, because after these games the inhabitants of Elis would not award the crown even to those who were capable of it.
    [At this time] Gaius became emperor of the Romans.

    205th [41 A.D.] – Eubulidas of Laodiceia, stadion race
    [At this time] Claudius became emperor of the Romans.

    206th [45 A.D.] – Valerius of Mytilene, stadion race

    207th [49 A.D.] – Athenodorus of Aegium, stadion race

    208th [53 A.D.] – Athenodorus for a second time
    [At this time] Nero became emperor of the Romans.

    209th [57 A.D.] – Callicles of Sidon, stadion race

    210th [61 A.D.] – Athenodorus of Aegium [(?) for a third time], stadion race

    211th [65 A.D.] – These games were not held [at the usual time] because Nero postponed them until his visit to Greece. They were held two years later, and Tryphon of Philadelphia won the stadion race. Nero was awarded the crown in the contests for heralds, performers of tragedy and citharodes; and also in the races for chariots drawn by foals, full-grown horses and ten foals.

    212th [69 A.D.] – Polites of Ceramus, stadion race
    [At this time] Vespasianus became emperor of the Romans.

    213th [73 A.D.] – Rhodon of Cyme, or Theodotus, stadion race

    214th [77 A.D.] – Straton of Alexandria, stadion race
    [At this time] Titus became emperor of the Romans.

    215th [81 A.D.] – Hermogenes of Xanthus, stadion race
    [At this time] Domitianus became emperor of the Romans.

    216th [85 A.D.] – Apollophanes Papis of Tarsus, stadion race

    217th [89 A.D.] – Hermogenes of Xanthus for a second time, stadion race

    218th [93 A.D.] – Apollonius of Alexandria, or Heliodorus, stadion race

    219th [97 A.D.] – Stephanus of Cappadocia, stadion race
    [At this time] Nerva became emperor of the Romans, and after him Trajanus [became emperor].

    220th [101 A.D.] – Achilleus of Alexandria, stadion race

    221st [105 A.D.] – Theonas Smaragdus of Alexandria, stadion race

    222nd [109 A.D.] – Callistus of Side, stadion race
    The horse races were reintroduced.

    [p217] 223rd [113 A.D.] – Eustolus of Side, stadion race

    224th [117 A.D.] – Isarion of Alexandria, stadion race
    [At this time] Hadrianus became emperor of the Romans.

    225th [121 A.D.] – Aristeas of Miletus, stadion race

    226th [125 A.D.] – Dionysius Sameumys of Alexandria, stadion race

    227th [129 A.D.] – Dionysius for a second time

    228th [133 A.D.] – Lucas of Alexandria, stadion race

    229th [137 A.D.] – Epidaurus Ammonius of Alexandria, stadion race
    [At this time] Antoninus Pius became emperor of the Romans.

    230th [141 A.D.] – Didymus (?) Clydeus of Alexandria, stadion race

    231st [145 A.D.] – Cranaus of Sicyon, stadion race

    232nd [149 A.D.] – Atticus of Sardis, stadion race
    Socrates entered both the wrestling and the citharode competitions, but he was banned by the inhabitants of Elis, in favour of Dionysius of Seleuceia.

    233rd [153 A.D.] – Demetrius of Chios, stadion race

    234th [157 A.D.] – Eras of Chios, stadion race

    235th [161 A.D.] – Mnasibulus of Elateia, stadion race
    [At this time] Marcus Antoninus Pius and Lucius Verus became emperors of the Romans.

    236th [165 A.D.] – Aeithales of Alexandria, stadion race

    237th [169 A.D.] – Eudaemon of Alexandria, stadion race

    238th [173 A.D.] – Agathopus of Aegina, stadion race

    239th [177 A.D.] – Agathopus for a second time
    [At this time] Commodus became emperor of the Romans.

    240th [181 A.D.] – Anubion Pheidus of Alexandria, stadion race

    241st [185 A.D.] – Heron of Alexandria, stadion race

    242nd [189 A.D.] – Magnus [Libycus] of Cyrene, stadion race

    243rd [193 A.D.] – Isidorus [Artemidorus] of Alexandria, stadion race
    [At this time] Pertinax, and then Severus, became emperors of the Romans.

    244th [197 A.D.] – Isidorus for a second time

    245th [201 A.D.] – Alexander of Alexandria, stadion race

    246th [205 A.D.] – Epinicus Cynas of Cyzicus, stadion race

    [p219] 247th [209 A.D.] – Satornilus of Gortyn in Crete, stadion race
    [At this time] Antoninus, called Caracalla, became emperor of the Romans.

    248th [213 A.D.] – Heliodorus Trosidamas of Alexandria, stadion race

    249th [217 A.D.] – Heliodorus for a second time

    The record of the Olympiads which we have found ends at this point.

    It will be fitting to add here lists of the kings of the Corinthians, kings of the Spartans, rulers of the sea and the early kings of the Macedonians. I will set down in order their names and their dates, taking them from the Historical Library of Diodorus, who gives a very accurate account of them.

    The kings of the Corinthians – from the books of Diodorus

    After thoroughly investigating that, it remains to tell how Corinth and Sicyon were settled by the Dorians. Almost all the nations in the Peloponnese, except the Arcadians, were uprooted by the return of the Heracleidae. In their division of the land, the Heracleidae picked out Corinth and the surrounding area; they sent for Aletes, and awarded the territory to him. Aletes became a distinguished king and increased the power of Corinth; he reigned for 38 years.

    After the death of Aletes, his descendants ruled the land, the eldest son succeeding in every case, until the tyrant Cypselus, who [came to power] 447 years after the return of the Heracleidae.

    The first of them to become king was Ixion, for 38 years.
    [p221] Then Agelas was king for 37 years.
    Then Prymnis, for 35 years.
    Then Bacchis, also for 35 years. Bacchis was the most distinguished of the kings up to his time; so that the kings after him called themselves Bacchidae instead of Heracleidae.
    Then Agelas, for 30 years.
    Eudemus, for 25 years.
    Aristomedes, for 35 years.
    When Aristomedes died, his son Telestes was still a child; and so the direct succession was interrupted by his uncle and guardian Agemon, for 16 years.
    Then Alexander was king, for 25 years.
    Telestes, who earlier had been deprived of his father’s kingdom, killed Alexander, and ruled for 12 years.
    Automenes ruled for one year, after Telestes was killed by his relatives.

    The Bacchidae, descendants of Heracles who were more than 200 in number, seized power and jointly governed the city; each year they chose one of their number to be president, in place of the king. They governed the city for 90 years, until they were suppressed by the tyrant Cypselus.

    The kings of the Corinthians are as follows:

    1. Aletes – for 35 years
    2. Ixion – for 37 years
    3. Agelas – for 37 years
    4. Prymnis – for 35 years
    5. Bacchis – for 35 years
    6. Agelas – for 30 years
    7. Eudemus – for 25 years
    8. Aristomedes – for 35 years
    9. Agemon – for 16 years
    10. Alexander – for 25 years
    11. Teletes – for 12 years
    12. Automenes – for one year

    After which there were annual presidents.

    The kings of the Spartans – from the books of Diodorus

    It happens that it is difficult to establish the dates between the Trojan war and the first Olympiad, because at that time there were no annual magistrates either at Athens or at any other city. Therefore we will take the kings of the Spartans as an example.

    According to Apollodorus of Athens, there were 308 years from the destruction of Troy [1183 B.C.] until the first Olympiad [776 B.C.]. 80 of those years passed before the expedition of the Heracleidae [1103 B.C.]; [p223] the rest are covered by the reigns of the kings of the Spartans – Procles, Eurysthenes and their descendants. We will set down the order of [the kings of] each family up until the first Olympiad.

    Eurysthenes began his reign in the 80th year after the Trojan war, and he was king for 42 years.
    After him, Agis reigned for one year.
    Echestratus for 31 years.
    After him, Labotas reigned for 37 years.
    Dorystus for 29 years.
    They were followed by Agesilaus, who reigned for 44 years.
    Archelaus for 60 years.
    Teleclus for 40 years.
    Alcamenes for 38 years. In the tenth year of his reign, the first Olympiad was established, in which Coroebus of Elis won the stadion race.

    Procles was the first king of the other family, for (?) 49 years.
    After him, Prytanis reigned for 49 years.
    Eunomius for 45 years.
    And then Chariclus reigned for 60 years.
    Nicander for 38 years.
    Theopompus for 47 years. The first Olympiad occurred in the tenth year of this reign.

    In summary, there were 80 years from the capture of Troy until the expedition of the Heracleidae, and then these kings of the Spartans:

    1. Eurysthenes – for 42 years

    2. Agis – for one year

    3. Echestrates – for 37 years

    4. Labotas – for 37 years

    5. Dorystus – for 29 years

    6. [p225] Agesilaus – for 44 years.

    7. Archelaus – for 60 years

    8. Teleclus – for 40 years

    9. Alcamenes – for 37 years. In his tenth year, the first Olympiad was established.

    In total, 325 years.

    The kings from the other family were:

    1. Procles – for 51 years

    2. Prytanis – for 49 years

    3. Eunomius – for 45 years

    4. Charicles – for 60 years

    5. Nicander – for 38 years

    6. Theopompus – for 47 years. In his tenth year, the first Olympiad was established.

    In total, 290 years.

    The Thalassocracies, who ruled the sea – in brief, from the writings of Diodorus

    After the Trojan war, the sea was controlled by:

    1. The Lydians and Maeones – for 92 years

    2. The Pelasgians – for 85 years

    3. The Thracians – for 79 years

    4. The Rhodians – for 23 years

    5. The Phrygians – for 25 years

    6. The Cypriots – for 33 years

    7. The Phoenicians – for 45 years

    8. The Egyptians – for [..] years

    9. The Milesians – for [..] years

    10. [The Carians – for .. years]

    11. The Lesbians – for [..] years

    12. The Phocaeans – for 44 years

    13. The Samians for [..] years

    14. The Spartans – for 2 years

    15. The Naxians – for 10 years

    16. The Eretrians – for 15 years

    17. The Aeginetans – for 10 years

    Up until the time when (?) Alexander crossed over the sea.

    After this, it will be fitting to move on to the kingdom of the Macedonians.

    [p227]The kings of the Macedonians

    The end of the Assyrian empire, after the death of Sardanapallus the last king of the Assyrians, was followed by the Macedonian age.

    Before the first Olympiad, Caranus was moved by ambition to collect forces from the Argives and from the rest of the Peloponnese, in order to lead an army into the territory of the Macedonians. At that time the king of the Orestae was at war with his neighbours, the Eordaei, and he called on Caranus to come to his aid, promising to give him half of his territory in return, if the Orestae were successful. The king kept his promise, and Caranus took possession of the territory; he reigned there for 30 years, until he died in old age.
    He was succeeded by his son Coenus, who was king for 28 years.
    After him, Tyrimias reigned for 43 years.
    Perdiccas for 42 years. He wanted to expand his kingdom; so he sent [a mission] to Delphi.

    A little further on, [Diodorus] says:
    Perdiccas reigned for 48 years, and left his kingdom to Argaeus, who reigned for 31 years.
    The next king was Philippus, who reigned for 33 years.
    Aeropus for 20 years.
    Alcetas for 18 years.
    Amyntas for 49 years.
    He was followed by Alexander, who reigned for 44 years.
    Then Perdiccas was king for 22 years.
    Archelaus for 17 years.
    Aeropus for 6 years.
    Then Pausanias was king for one year.
    Ptolemaeus for 3 years.
    Perdiccas for 5 years.
    Philippus for 24 years.
    Alexander, [who] fought against the Persians, for more than 12 years.

    In this way the most reliable historians trace the ancestry of the Macedonian kings back to Heracles. From Caranus, who was the first to rule all the Macedonians, until Alexander, who conquered Asia, there were 24 kings who reigned for a total of 453 years.

    [p229] The individual [kings] are as follows:

    1. Caranus reigned for 30 years

    2. Coenus – for 28 years

    3. Tyrimias – for 43 years

    4. Perdiccas – for 48 years

    5. Argaeus – for 38 years

    6. Philippus – for 33 years

    7. Aeropus – for 20 years

    8. Alcetas – for 18 years. In his time, Cyrus was king of the Persians.

    9. Amyntas – for 42 years

    10. Alexander – for 44 years

    11. Perdiccas – for 23 years

    12. Archelaus – for 24 years

    13. Orestes – for 3 years

    14. Archelaus – for 4 years

    15. Amyntas – for one year

    16. Pausanias – for one year

    17. Amyntas – for 6 years

    18. Argaeus – for 2 years

    19. Amyntas – for 18 years

    20. Alexander – for one year

    21. Ptolemaeus of Alorus – for 3 years

    22. Perdiccas – for 6 years

    23. Philippus – for 27 years

    24. Alexander the son of Philippus – for 12 years

    The kings of the Macedonians, from the writings of our enemy, the philosopher Porphyrius:

    These were the kings of Macedonia and Greece after Alexander the son of Philippus; and the Macedonian kingdom continued until its dissolution as follows.

    The Macedonians appointed Aridaeus, the son of Philippus and Philinna of Thessaly, to be king after Alexander because of their affection for the family of Philippus, although they knew that Aridaeus was the son a courtesan and he was feeble-minded. He began to reign, as we said, in the second year of the 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.]. He is reckoned to have reigned for 7 years, because he lived up until the fourth year of the 115th Olympiad [317 B.C.].

    [p231] Alexander left two sons, Heracles the son of Barsine the daughter of Pharnabazus, and Alexander the son of Roxane the daughter of Oxyartes the Bactrian; this Alexander was born about the time of his father’s death, at the start of Philippus’ reign. Olympias the mother of Alexander killed Aridaeus, but then Cassander the son of Antipater executed her and both the sons of Alexander, the one by himself and the other (the son of Barsine) by prompting Polysperchon. Cassander cast away Olympias’ body without a burial, and proclaimed himself king; and from then onwards, all the other satraps acted as kings, because the family of Alexander had been destroyed. Cassander married Thessalonice the daughter of Philippus, and survived as king for another 19 years as king, until he died of a wasting disease. His reign, including the year in which Olympias ruled after the death of Aridaeus, lasted from the first year of the 116th Olympiad [316 B.C.] until the third year of the 120th Olympiad [298 B.C.].

    Cassander was succeeded by his sons, Philippus and Alexander and Antipater, who reigned for 3 years and 6 months after the death of their father. The first to rule was Philippus, who died at Elateia. Then Antipater murdered his mother Thessalonice, who favoured her other son Alexander, and fled to Lysimachus. But Lysimachus put him to death, even though he had married one of Lysimachus’ daughters.

    Alexander married Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemaeus, and in the war against his younger brother called on the aid of Demetrius the son of Antigonus, who was called Poliorcetes. But Demetrius killed Alexander, and made himself the king of the Macedonians. The reign of the sons of Cassander is reckoned to last from the fourth year [p233] of the 120th Olympiad [297 B.C.] until the third year of the 121st Olympiad [294 B.C.].

    Demetrius reigned for 6 years, from the [fourth year of the] 121st Olympiad [293 B.C.]until the first year of the 123rd Olympiad [288 B.C.], when he was deposed by Pyrrhus the king of Epirus, the 23rd in line from Achilleus the son of Thetis. Pyrrhus claimed the kingdom belonged to him after the extinction of Philippus’ family, through his connection with Olympias the mother of Alexander, who was also a descendant of Pyrrhus the son of Neoptolemus.

    Pyrrhus ruled the Macedonians for seven months in the second year of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.]. In the eighth month, he was replaced by Lysimachus the son of son of Agathocles, a Thessalian from Crannon who had been a bodyguard of Alexander. Lysimachus was king of Thrace and the Chersonese, and now overran the neighbouring country of Macedonia.

    Lysimachus was persuaded by his wife Arsinoe to kill his own son. He ruled Macedonia for 5 years and 6 months, from the second year of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.] until the third year of the 124th Olympiad [282 B.C.]. [p235] He was defeated by Seleucus Nicator, the king of Asia, at the battle of Corupedium, and lost his life in the battle. But straight after his victory, Seleucus was murdered by Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, the son of Lagus and Eurydice the daughter of Antipater, even though Seleucus was his benefactor and had received him when he fled [from Lysimachus].

    Then Ptolemaeus ruled over the Macedonians, until he was killed in battle against the Galatians. He reigned for one year and five months, which lasted from the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.] until the fifth month of the first year of the 125th Olympiad [280 B.C.].

    Ptolemaeus was succeeded by his brother Meleager, but the Macedonians deposed Meleager after only two months, because they considered him unfit to rule. In his place, since no-one was left from the royal family, they appointed as king Antipater, who was the nephew of Cassander and the son of Philippus. But he too was deposed after ruling for 45 days by Sosthenes, a commoner who considered him to be too poor a general to face the dangerous invasion of Brennus the Galatian. The Macedonians gave Antipater the name Etesias, because the Etesian winds blow at about the time when he was king. Sosthenes repelled Brennus, and died after being in charge of the state for two complete years.

    After Sosthenes, there was anarchy in Macedonia, because the followers of Antipater and Ptolemaeus and Aridaeus were competing for control of the state, but no-one was completely in charge. In the period from Ptolemaeus until the end of the anarchy, that is from the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.] until the [first year of the] 126th Olympiad [276 B.C.], Ptolemaeus Ceraunus reigned for one year and five months, [p237] Meleager for two months, Antipater for 45 days, Sosthenes for two years, and the rest is reckoned to have been a time of anarchy.

    While Antipater was plotting to take over the state, Antigonus set himself up as king; he was the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila the daughter of Antipater, and was called Gonatas because he had been born and brought up at Gonni in Thessaly. Antigonus reigned in total for 44 years; before he gained control of Macedonia, he had already been king for 10 whole years. He was proclaimed king in the second year of the 123rd Olympiad [287 B.C.], and became king of the Macedonians in the first year of the 126th Olympiad [276 B.C.]. Antigonus subdued Greece by force; he lived for 83 years in all, and died in the first year of the 135th Olympiad [240 B.C.].

    Antigonus was succeeded by his son Demetrius, who conquered the whole of Libya and captured Cyrene. Eventually he gained absolute control of all his father’s possessions, and ruled over them for 10 years. He married a captive girl whom he called Chryseis, and by her he had a son Philippus, who was the first of the kings to fight against the Romans and caused the Macedonians much woe.

    When Demetrius died, Philippus was left as a [young] orphan, and a member of the royal family, Antigonus called Phuscus, became his guardian. Seeing that Phuscus acted honourably in his role of guardian, the Macedonians made him king, and gave him Chryseis to be his wife. Chryeis bore him sons, but he did not bring them up, because he was holding the kingdom in trust for Philippus. And indeed he was succeeded by Philippus, when he died.

    Demetrius, called the Fair, died in the second year of the [?] 130th Olympiad. Philippus then became king, [p239] with the aforesaid Antigonus as his guardian. Antigonus died in the fourth year of the 139th Olympiad [221 B.C.]; he had been guardian for 12 years, and lived for 42 years in all. Philippus began to rule without a guardian in the 140th Olympiad [220 B.C.]; he reigned for 42 complete years, and died in the second year of the 150th Olympiad [179 B.C.], aged 58 years.

    Perseus the son of Philippus caused the death of his brother Demetrius by making accusations against him to his father. Perseus was king for 10 years and 8 months, until the fourth years of the 152nd Olympiad [169 B.C.], when Lucius Aemilius defeated and conquered the Macedonians at Pydna. Perseus fled to Samothrace, but then agreed to surrender to the enemy, who transferred him to Alba, where he was imprisoned and died five years later. He was the last king of the Macedonians.

    At that time the Romans allowed the Macedonians to remain autonomous, out of respect for their glorious reputation and the greatness of their [former] empire. But 19 years later, in the third year of the 157th Olympiad [150 B.C.], a certain Andriscus falsely claimed to be the son of Perseus, and took on the name of Philippus, from which he came to be called the false Philippus. With the help of the Thracians he conquered Macedonia, but after ruling for a year he was defeated and fled to the Thracians, who handed him over, to be sent as a prisoner to Rome.

    Because the Macedonians had been ungrateful, and had co-operated with the false Philippus, the Romans made them tributary in the fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.]. So from Alexander until the end, when they became tributary to the Romans, that is from the second year of 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.] [p241] until the fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.], the kingdom of the Macedonians lasted for 43 Olympiads and two extra years, which is a total of 174 years.

    These are the kings of the Macedonians after Alexander the son of Philippus:

    • Aridaeus, also called Philippus – for 7 years
    • Cassander – for 19 years
    • The sons of Cassander – for 3 years and 6 months
    • Demetrius Poliorcetes – for 6 years
    • Pyrrhus – for 7 months
    • Lysimachus – for 5 years and 5 months
    • Ptolemaeus Ceraunus – for 1 year and 5 months
    • Meleager – for 2 months
    • Antipater son of Lysimachus – for 45 days
    • Sosthenes – for 2 years
    • (Anarchy) – for 2 years
    • Antigonus Gonatas – for 34 years
    • Demetrius the Fair – for 10 years
    • Antigonus Phuscus – for 12 years
    • Philippus – for 42 years
    • Perseus – for 10 years and 8 months
    • (Autonomy) – for 19 years
    • The false Philippus – for 1 year

    After that, they were subject to the Romans.

    The kings of the Thessalians:

    For a long time, the Thessalians and Epirus had the same rulers as the Macedonians. They were granted independence by the Romans after Philippus was defeated by the Roman general Titus in Thessaly. But eventually, for the same reason as the Macedonians, they were made tributary to the Romans.

    Like the Macedonians, they were ruled by Aridaeus, also called Philippus, for seven years after the death of Alexander. Then his successor Cassander ruled over Epirus and the Thessalians for 19 years. After him, his son Philippus [ruled] for 4 months. Then his brothers Antipater and Alexander [ruled] for 2 years and 6 months. And then Demetrius the son of [Antigonus ruled] for 6 years and 6 months. After him, Pyrrhus [ruled] for 4 years and 4 months. Then Lysimachus the son of Agathocles [ruled] for 6 years. [p243] And Ptolemaeus, who was called Ceraunus, [ruled] for one year and 5 months. Then Meleager [ruled] for 2 months. After him, Antipater the son of Lysimachus [ruled] for 45 days. After him, Sosthenes [ruled] for one year. Then there was anarchy for 2 years and 2 months, after which Antigonus the son of Demetrius [ruled] for 34 years and 2 months.

    During this time, Pyrrhus won over Antigonus’ army and ruled over a few regions, but he lost control of them when he was defeated by Demetrius the son of Antigonus in a battle at Derdia. Shortly afterwards Antigonus died, and his son Demetrius reigned for 10 years. After him, Antigonus, the son of Demetrius who went off to Cyrene and of Olympias the daughter of Pauliclitus of Larisa, [ruled] for 9 years. Antigonus came to the aid of the Achaeans, defeated Cleomenes the king of the Spartans in battle, and liberated Sparta. Therefore the Achaean people honoured him like a god.

    After him, Philippus the son of Demetrius reigned for 23 years and 9 months, until he was defeated in a battle in Thessaly by Titus the Roman general. Then the Romans allowed the Thessalians to be autonomous, along with the rest of the Ionians [? Greeks] who had been subject to Philippus. For the first year there was anarchy in Thessaly, but then they started to elect annual leaders from amongst the people.

    The first to be elected was Pausanias the son of Echecrates, from Pherae. Then Amyntas the son of Crates, from [?] Pieria; in his year, Titus returned to Rome. Then Aeacides the son of Callas, from Metropolis. Then Epidromas the son of Andromachus, from Larisa, for 8 months only; for the remaining 4 months of the year, the leader was Eunomus the son of Polyclitus, from Larisa. Eunomus was leader again for the whole of the following year. Then Aeacides the son of Callas, from Metropolis, for a second time. Then Pravilus the son of Phaxas, from Scotussa. Then Eunomus [p245] the son of Polyclitus, from Larisa, for a second time. Then Androsthenes the son of Italas, from Gortona. Then Thrasymachus the son of Alexander, from [?] Atrax. Then Laontomenes the son of Damothon, from Pherae. Then Pausanias the son of Damothon. Then Theodorus the son of Alexander, from Argos. Then Nicocrates the son of Paxinas, from [?] Scotussa. Then Hippolochus the son of Alexippus, from Larisa. Then Cleomachides the son of Aeneus, from Larisa. Then Phyrinus the son of Aristomenes, from Gomphi.

    In his year, Philippus the king of Macedonia died, and was succeeded by his son Perseus. As we said, Philippus reigned over the Thessalians for 3 years and 9 months, but in all he reigned over the Macedonians for 42 years and 9 months. From the start of the reign of Philippus [Aridaeus] until the death of Philippus the son of Demetrius, that is from the second year of the 114th Olympiad [323 B.C.] until the fifth month of the second year of the 150th Olympiad [179 B.C.], is a total of 144 years and five months.

    A summary of the kings of the Thessalians:

    • Aridaeus, also called Philippus – for 7 years
    • Cassander – for 19 years
    • Philippus – for 4 months
    • Antigonus and Alexander – for 2 years and 6 months
    • Demetrius – for 6 years and 6 months
    • Pyrrhus – for 3 years and 6 months
    • Lysimachus – for 6 years
    • Ptolemaeus, also called Ceraunus – for 1 year and 5 months
    • Meleager – for 2 months
    • Antipater – for 45 days
    • Sosthenes – for 1 year
    • (Anarchy) – for 2 years and 2 months
    • Antigonus – for 33 years and 2 months
    • [p247] Demetrius – for 10 years
    • Antigonus – for 9 years
    • Philippus – for 23 years and 9 months

    And then the following [annual] leaders: Pausanias, Amyntas, Aeacides, Epidromus, Eunomus, Aeacides again, Praviles, Eunomus again, Androsthenes, Thrasymachus, Laontomenes, Pausanias, Theodorus, Nicocrates, Hippolochus, Cleomachides, Phyrinus, and Philippus.

    [p247]   The kings of Asia and Syria after the death of Alexander the Great:

    In the 6th year of Philippus Aridaeus, which was the third year of the 115th Olympiad [318 B.C.], Antigonus became the first king of Asia. He reigned for 18 years, and lived in all for 86 years. He was the most formidable of the kings of that period, and died in Phrygia after all the other rulers attacked him out of fear of him, in the fourth year of the 119th Olympiad [301 B.C.].

    His son Demetrius escaped to Ephesus, and lost control of all of Asia; he was considered to be the most resourceful of the kings in siege warfare, and so was given the name Poliorcetes [“the besieger”]. Demetrius reigned for 17 years, and lived in all for 54 years. Starting from the first year of the 120th Olympiad [300 B.C.], he ruled jointly with his father for 2 years, which were included in the 17 years of his reign. In the fourth year of the [123rd] Olympiad [285 B.C.] he was captured by Seleucus; after his capture, he was sent to Cilicia, and was kept in royal style as a prisoner of Seleucus until he died, in the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.]. The reigns of Antigonus and Demetrius passed in this way.

    Meanwhile, Lysimachus was ruling in Lydia opposite Thrace and Seleucus was ruling in the eastern regions and Syria. [p249] Both of them started to reign in the first year of the 114th Olympiad [324 B.C.]. No account will be given of Lysimachus’ reign, but the events of Seleucus’ reign will be described here.

    After Ptolemaeus, the first king of the Egyptians, had marched to Old Gaza and had defeated Demetrius the son of Antigonus in battle, he set up Seleucus as king of Syria and the eastern regions. Seleucus went up to Babylonia and defeated the barbarians there; so he was given the name Nicanor [“victor”]. He reigned for 32 years, from the first year of the 117th Olympiad [312 B.C.] until the fourth year of the 124th Olympiad [281 B.C.], and lived in all for 75 years. Eventually, he was ambushed and killed by his friend Ptolemaeus, called Ceraunus.

    Seleucus was succeeded by Antiochus, his son by Apame the Persian. Antiochus was called Soter, and died in the [third] year of the 129th Olympiad [262 B.C.] after he had lived in all for 54 years and had reigned for 19 years, from the first year of the 125th Olympiad [280 B.C.] until the third year of the 129th Olympiad [262 B.C.].

    Antiochus Soter had [three] children by Stratonice the daughter of Demetrius; a son Antiochus, and two daughters Stratonice and Apame, of whom the former was married to Demetrius the king of the Macedonians, and the latter [to Magas?]. When he died, he was succeeded by Antiochus called Theos, in the fourth year of the 129th Olympiad [261 B.C.]. After 19 years, Antiochus Theos fell ill, [p251] and died at Ephesus in the third year of the [133rd] Olympiad [246 B.C.], after living in all for 40 years. He had two sons, Seleucus called Callinicus and Antigonus, and two daughters by Laodice the daughter of Achaeus, of whom one was married to Mithridates and the other to Ariathes. The elder son Seleucus, who as we said was called Callinicus, succeeded Antiochus and reigned for 21 years, from the third year of the 133rd Olympiad [246 B.C.] until the second year of the 138th Olympiad [227 B.C.].

    When he died, Seleucus was succeeded by his son, Seleucus called Ceraunus, but while he was still alive it happened that his younger brother Antigonus refused to accept his position and sought power for himself. Antigonus had help and assistance from [Alexander], the brother of his mother Laodice, who was in charge of the city of Sardis; he also had the Galatians as allies in two battles. Seleucus won a battle in Lydia, but he was unable to capture Sardis or Ephesus, which was held by Ptolemaeus. Then Seleucus fought a second battle against Mithridates in Cappadocia, where 20,000 of his men were killed by the barbarians, and he himself lost his life. Meanwhile Ptolemaeus called Tryphon seized part of Syria, but his siege of Damascus and Orthosia was stopped in the third year of the 134th Olympiad [242 B.C.], when Seleucus advanced to that region.

    Antigonus the brother of Callinicus crossed greater Phrygia, forced the inhabitants to pay tribute, and sent his generals with an army against Seleucus. But he was handed over by his own followers to the barbarians, and after escaping with a few men, set off for Magnesia. The next day he offered battle, and with the assistance of soldiers sent by Ptolemaeus, amongst others, he won a victory, and married the daughter of Zielas. [p253] However, in the fourth year of the 137th Olympiad [229 B.C.] he fought twice in the country of Lydia and was defeated, and he joined battle with Attalus in the region of Lake Coloe. In the first year of the 138th Olympiad [228 B.C.], after a battle in Caria he was forced by Attalus to flee to Thrace, where he died.

    Seleucus Callinicus, the brother of Antigonus, died in the next year, and was succeeded by his son Alexander, who adopted the name Seleucus, and was called Ceraunus by his army. Seleucus had a brother called Antiochus. After reigning for three years, Seleucus was treacherously attacked and killed by a Galatian called Nicanor, in about the first year of the 139th Olympiad [224 B.C.]. He was succeeded by his brother Antiochus, whom the army summoned from Babylon. Antiochus was called [the Great] and reigned for 36 years, from the second year of the 139th Olympiad [223 B.C.] until the second year of the 148th Olympiad [187 B.C.]. In the latter year, he made an expedition to Susa and the eastern provinces, but was killed with all [his men] in battle with the Elymaeans; he left behind two sons, Seleucus and Antiochus.

    Seleucus succeeded his father in the third year of the 148th Olympiad [186 B.C.], and reigned for 12 years, until the [?] first year of the 151st Olympiad [176 B.C.]; he lived in all for 60 years. When Seleucus died, he was succeeded by his brother Antiochus called Epiphanes, who reigned for 11 years, from the third year of the 151st Olympiad [174 B.C.] until the first year of the 154th Olympiad [164 B.C.]. While Antiochus Epiphanes was still alive, his son Antiochus called Eupator was made king, when he was only twelve years old, after which his father lived for a further one year and six months. Then Demetrius, who had been given to the Romans by his father Seleucus as a hostage, escaped from Rome to Phoenicia, and came to the city of Tripolis. Demetrius killed the young Antiochus along with his guardian Lysias, and made himself king in the fourth year of the 154th Olympiad [161 B.C.]; [p255] he was called Soter, and reigned for 12 years, until the [?] fourth year of the 157th Olympiad [149 B.C.]. He was forced to fight for his kingdom against Alexander, who brought an army from outside with the assistance of Ptolemaeus and Attalus, and he was killed in a battle.

    Alexander gained control of Syria in the [?] third year of the 157th Olympiad [150 B.C.], and ruled for 5 years. He died in the fourth year of the 158th Olympiad [145 B.C.], in a battle near the city of Antioch against Ptolemaeus, who had come to the aid of Demetrius the son of Demetrius. Ptolemaeus also was wounded and died in the same battle.

    The war was carried on by this Demetrius, the son of Demetrius. Setting out from Seleuceia, he defeated Antiochus the son of Alexander, who was based in Syria and the city of Antioch, and started to reign in the first year of the 160th Olympiad [140 B.C.]. In his second year, he collected an army and set off for Babylon and the eastern regions, to fight against Arsaces. In the next year, which was the third year of the 160th Olympiad [138 B.C.], he was captured by Arsaces, who sent him to be held prisoner in Parthia; so he was called Nicanor [“victor”] because he had defeated Antiochus the son of Alexander, and also [?] Seripides because he was kept as a prisoner in chains. The younger brother of Demetrius, called Antiochus, was brought up in the city of Side, from which he was given the name Sidetes. When he heard that Demetrius had been defeated and made a prisoner, he left Side and in the fourth year of the 160th Olympiad [137 B.C.] gained control of Syria, which he ruled for nine years. In the third year of the 162nd Olympiad [130 B.C.] he conquered the Jews, pulled down the walls of [Jerusalem] after a siege, and put their leaders to death.

    In the fourth year of the 162nd Olympiad [129 B.C.], Arsaces attacked him with an army of 120,000 men, and schemed against him by sending his brother Demetrius, who had been kept as a prisoner, back to Syria. But at the onset of winter Antiochus met the barbarians in a confined space; bravely attacking them, he was injured and killed, in the 35th year of his life. [p257] His young son Seleucus, who had accompanied him, was captured by king Arsaces and was kept in royal style as a prisoner.

    Antiochus the fifth had three sons and two daughters; the first two, the daughters, were both called Laodice. The third, called Antiochus, fell ill and died, like his sisters. The fourth was Seleucus, who was captured by Arsaces. The fifth was another Antiochus, who was brought up by Craterus the eunuch at Cyzicus, where he had fled with Craterus and the rest of the household of Antiochus, through fear of Demetrius. One of the brothers had already died, along with his sister, so only Antiochus was left, the youngest of the brothers, and because of his residence at Cyzicus he was called Cyzicenus.

    Demetrius returned [to Syria] and started his second reign in the second year of the (?) 163rd Olympiad [127 B.C.], after having been held captive for the intervening 10 years. As soon as he returned from captivity, he turned his attention to Egypt; he advanced as far as Pelusium, but when Ptolemaeus Physcon confronted him Demetrius had to retreat, because his soldiers hated him and refused to obey his orders.

    Angered by this, Ptolemaeus set up Alexander, a pretended son of Alexander, to be king of Asia; Alexander was called Zabinas by the Syrians, because he was thought to have been bought by Ptolemaeus to take on this role.

    Demetrius was defeated in a battle at Damascus, and fled to Tyre, but was refused entry into the city. While trying to escape by boat, he was seized and killed, in the first year of the 164th Olympiad [124 B.C.]; he had reigned for 3 years before his captivity, and for another 4 years after his return.

    Demetrius was succeeded by his son Seleucus, who died soon afterwards as a result of his mother’s accusations. His younger brother Antiochus came to power in the second year of the 164th Olympiad [123 B.C.], and in the third year he defeated Zabinas, who killed himself with poison because he could not endure the defeat. Antiochus reigned for 11 years, until the fourth year of the 166th Olympiad [113 B.C.]; the one year of his brother Seleucus’ reign is also included in this total. [p259] He was given the names Grypus [“hook-nose”] and Philometor. But when faced with an attack by Antiochus Cyzicenus whom we mentioned earlier, who was his half-brother by the same mother as well as his nephew on his father’s side, Grypus gave up his kingdom and retired to Aspendus; from which he was given the name Aspendius, as well as Grypus and Philometor.

    Antiochus Cyzicenus started to reign in the first year of the 167th Olympiad [112 B.C.], after Antiochus [Grypus] retired to Aspendus. But in the second year of the same Olympiad [111 B.C.], Antiochus returned from Aspendus, and took control of Syria, while Cyzicenus remained in control of Coele [Syria]. After the kingdom had been split between them in this way, Grypus remained as king until the fourth year of the 170th Olympiad [97 B.C.]. He lived for another 15 years after his return, so that his reign lasted in all for 26 years: 11 years on his own, and 15 years after the kingdom had been split in two.

    Cyzicenus ruled from the first year of the 167th Olympiad [112 B.C.], and died in the first year of the 171st Olympiad [96 B.C.], after reigning for 18 years and living in all for 50 years. The manner of his death was as follows. After Antiochus Grypus died at the time which was stated above, his son Seleucus came with an army and captured many cities. Antiochus Cyzicenus brought an army from Antioch, but was defeated in a battle; his horse carried him off towards the enemy, and when they were about to capture him, he drew his sword and killed himself. So Seleucus gained control of the whole kingdom, and captured Antioch.

    But the surviving son of Cyzicenus began a war against Seleucus. When their armies met at the city called Mopsuestia in Cilicia, the victory went to Antiochus. Seleucus fled to the city, but when he learnt that the inhabitants intended to burn him alive, [p261] he hastened to commit suicide. His two brothers Antiochus and Philippus who were called the Didymi [“twins”], appeared with an army and captured the city by force; then they avenged their brother’s death by destroying the city. However they were confronted by the son of Cyzicenus, and defeated in a battle; while escaping from the battle, Antiochus the brother of Seleucus rode his horse recklessly and fell headlong into the river Orontes, where he was caught by the current and died.

    And then two others began to fight over the kingdom: Philippus, the brother of Seleucus and son of Antiochus Grypus, and Antiochus, the son of Antiochus Cyzicenus. Starting from the (?) third year of the 171st Olympiad [94 B.C.], they fought against each other for possession of Syria with substantial armies, each controlling part of the country. Antiochus was defeated and fled to the Parthians. Later he surrendered to Pompeius, in the hope of being restored to Syria. But Pompeius, who had received a gift of money from the inhabitants of Antioch, ignored Antiochus and allowed to city to be autonomous.

    Then the inhabitants of Alexandria sent Menelaus and Lampon and Callimander to ask Antiochus to come and rule in Egypt together with the daughters of Ptolemaeus, when Ptolemaeus Dionysus had been driven out of Alexandria. But Antiochus fell ill, and died.

    Philippus whom we mentioned before, the son of Grypus and of Tryphaena the daughter of Ptolemaeus VIII, was also deposed. He wanted to go to Egypt, because he too had been invited by the inhabitants of Alexandria to rule there, but Gabinius, an officer of Pompeius who was the Roman governor of Syria, stopped him from going. And so the royal dynasty in Syria came to an end with Antiochus and Philippus.

    So the kings of Asia and Syria are as follows:

    • Antigonus was king of Asia – for 18 years
    • Demetrius Poliorcetes, king of Syria and the east – for 17 years
    • [p263] Seleucus Nicator [or “Nicanor”] – for 32 years
    • Antiochus Soter – for 19 years
    • Antiochus Theos – for 15 years
    • Seleucus Callinicus – for 21 years
    • Seleucus Ceraunus – for 3 years
    • Antiochus the Great – for 36 years
    • Seleucus Philopator – for 12 years
    • Antiochus Epiphanes – for 11 years
    • Antiochus Eupator – for 1 year and 6 months
    • Demetrius Soter – for 12 years
    • Alexander – for 15 years
    • Demetrius the son of Demetrius – for 3 years
    • Antiochus Sidetes – for 9 years
    • Demetrius again – for 4 years
    • Antiochus Grypus – for 26 years
    • Antiochus Cyzicenus – for 17 years
    • Philippus the son of Grypus, with whom the kings of Syria came to an end [ – for 2 years ]

    [The total duration of the Macedonian rule in Syria, starting from Antigonus, was 274 years; or, starting from Seleucus Nicator, 239 years.]

    THE ROMANS

    • The kings of the Romans, starting with Romulus
    • The emperors of the Romans, from Augustus to our time
    • The consuls of the Romans, from Julius Caesar to our time

    Taken from all the previous historians, as listed here:

    • from Alexander Polyhistor
    • from Abydenus, who wrote books about the Assyrians and Medes
    • from the three books of Manetho, about the monuments of Egypt
    • from Cephalion’s nine books of the Muses
    • from the forty books of Diodorus’ [Historical] Library, containing a brief history of events up until Gaius Caesar
    • from the eighteen books of Cassius Longinus, containing a summary of 228 Olympiads
    • [p265] from the fourteen books of Phlegon, the freedman of [Hadrianus] Caesar, containing a summary of 229 Olympiads
    • from the six books of Castor, containing an account of history from Ninus up until the 181st Olympiad
    • from the three books of (?) Thallus, containing an account of events from the capture of Troy up until the (?) 167th Olympiad [112 B.C.]
    • from [the books of] Porphyrius, the philosopher who lived in our time, [containing events] from the capture of Troy up until the reign of Claudius

    [The kings] of the Romans, and their dates

    It is now time to list the dates of the kings of the Romans. They first acquired this title in the seventh Olympiad [752-749 B.C.], when Romulus founded the city of the Romans, and gave his name to the city, and to all the people who were ruled by the kings [of the city]. Before this time they had been called sometimes Latins, and sometimes Aborigines, having different names at different times.

    After the capture of Troy, they submitted to Aeneias the son of Anchises, and his successors ruled over the people until the foundation of the city. The history of these kings has been related by many different writers, not only native Romans but also Greeks. It will be sufficient to quote just two of them, as reliable witnesses to the events which we are considering. Firstly, I will quote Dionysius, who provides a brief description of the history of the Romans; as well as other books, he wrote an Ancient History of the Romans. In the first book, he gives an account of Aeneias and the kings after him, (?) up until the capture of Troy. From this book I will summarise what is essential, and what is related to the matters which we are considering here, as follows [ DionHal1.9 ].

    From the first book of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, about the history of the Romans

    “This city, mistress of the whole earth and sea, which the Romans now inhabit, is said to have had as its earliest occupants the barbarian Sicels, a native race. As to the condition of the place before their time, whether it was occupied by others or uninhabited, none can certainly say. [p267] But some time later the Aborigines gained possession of it, having taken it from the occupants after a long war. These people had previously lived on the mountains in unwalled villages and scattered groups. They say that after them, the Pelasgians and some of the Greeks conquered that region. At first they were called Aborigines; but under Latinus, their king, who reigned at the time of the Trojan war, they began to be called Latins. Sixteen generations later, Romulus founded the city, and expanded it, and raised its affairs to greater prosperity.”

    And then Dionysius continues his narrative, in these very words [ DionHal1.10 ]: “There are some who affirm that the Aborigines, from whom the Romans are originally descended, were natives of Italy, a stock which came into being spontaneously (I call Italy all that peninsula which is bounded by the Ionian Gulf and the Tyrrhenian Sea and, thirdly, by the region where the Latins live). The Aborigines were called “founders of families” or “ancestors”; but others claim that they were called “vagabonds”, coming together out of many places. Still others have a story to the effect that they were foreigners who came there from Libya. But some of the Roman historians say that they were Greeks, part of those who once dwelt in Achaea, and that they migrated to there many generations before the Trojan war.”

    Then he adds: “It is uncertain, therefore, what the truth of the matter is. But in my opinion, the Aborigines can be a colony of no other people but of those who are now called Arcadians; for these were the first of all the Greeks to cross the Ionian Gulf, under the leadership of Oenotrus, the son of Lycaon, and to settle in Italy; this Oenotrus was the fifth from (?) Aezeius and Phoroneus, seventeen generations before the Trojan war. Oenotrus settled in the mountains, and called the region Oenotria, and its inhabitants Oenotrians. Later they were called Italians, from king Italus, who also gave the name of Italy to the whole country. [p269] Italus was succeeded by Morges, from whose name they were called Morgetes. And at the same time as Oenotrus, his brother Peucetius came as a colonist from Arcadia, and settled by the Junian bay, and from his name the people were called Peucetii.”

    After giving his own opinion about all of this, he then says that the Pelasgian colonists migrated from Greece, and settled in the country of the Italians among the Aborigines. The Pelasgians were also called Tyrrheni [Etruscans] and the whole region was called Tyrrhenia, from the name of one of their leaders, who was called Tyrrhenus. Later, Euander arrived with a fleet from Greece, from the city of Pallantium in Arcadia, and he settled in the region of Italy around the site of the future city of Rome. [Dionysius] says that the Arcadians brought the Greek alphabet to Italy, along with the musical instruments called nablia, or lyres, and a set of laws. After them, Heracles arrived with a Greek fleet and settled in the same region. At first, he was called Saturnius, and from his name the whole region was called Saturnia. Heracles had a son called Latinus, and he too ruled over the land of the Aborigines; from his name, they were called Latins. When Latinus died without any sons, Aeneias the son of Anchises succeeded him as king.

    He summarises all this again in the following words [ DionHal1.60 ]: “The people who came together there, and mingled with the native population of the land, from whom the Roman race was sprung, before the present inhabitants of the city, were as follows. Firstly, the Aborigines, who drove the Sicels out of this region; they were Greeks, originally from the Peloponnese, who came as colonists with Oenotrus, from the region which is now called Arcadia, in my opinion. Secondly, the Thessalians migrated there, from the country which used to be called Haemonia, and is now called Thessaly. Thirdly, the Pelasgians, who arrived with Euander from the city of Pallantium in Arcadia. Then another group arrived, who were part of the Peloponnesian army commanded by Heracles. Lastly, the Trojans who escaped with Aeneias from Ilium, Dardanus and the other Trojan towns.”

    [p271]   From the same book, about the date of Aeneias’ arrival in Italy

    He says [ DionHal1.63 ]: “Ilium was taken at the end of the summer, seventeen days before the winter solstice, and in the month of Elaphebolion, according to the calendar of the Athenians; and there still remained five days after the solstice to complete that year. During the thirty-seven days that followed the taking of the city I imagine the Achaeans were employed in regulating the affairs of the city, in receiving embassies from those who had withdrawn themselves, and in concluding a treaty with them. In the following year, which was the first after the taking of the city, the Trojans set sail after the autumnal equinox, crossed the Hellespont, and landing in Thrace, passed the winter season there, during which they received the fugitives who kept flocking to them and made the necessary preparations for their voyage. And leaving Thrace at the beginning of spring, they sailed as far as Sicily; when they had landed there that year came to an end, and they passed the second winter dwelling with the Elymians in their cities in Sicily. But as soon as conditions were favourable for navigation they set sail from the island, and crossing the Tyrrhenian sea, arrived at last at Laurentum on the coast of the Aborigines in the middle of the summer. And having taken possession of the region, they founded Lavinium, thus bringing to an end the second year from the taking of Troy. With regard to these matters, then, I have thus shown my opinion.

    “But when Aeneias had sufficiently adorned the city with temples and other public buildings, of which the greatest part remained even to my day, in the next year, which was the third after his departure from Troy, he reigned over the Trojans only. But in the fourth year, Latinus having died, he succeeded to his kingdom also, because of his relationship to him by marriage, Lavinia being the heiress after the death of Latinus.”

    A little later he adds: “War arose out of these complaints and in a sharp battle that ensued Latinus, Turnus and many others were slain; nevertheless, Aeneias and his people gained the victory. Thereupon Aeneias succeeded to the kingdom because of his connection by marriage; [p273] but when he had reigned three years after the death of Latinus, in the fourth he lost his life in battle.”

    A little later he says: “Aeneias having departed this life about the seventh year after the taking of Troy, Euryleon, who in the flight had been renamed Ascanius, succeeded to the rule over the Latins.”

    Then he adds [ DionHal1.70 ]: “Upon the death of the Ascanius in the thirty-eighth year of his reign, Silvius, his brother, succeeded to the rule. He was born of Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, after the death of Aeneias.”

    Then he adds: “Silvius, after holding the sovereignty twenty-nine years, was succeeded by Aeneias, his son, who reigned one less than thirty years. After him, Latinus reigned fifty-one, then Alba, thirty-nine; after Alba, Capetus reigned twenty-six, then Capys twenty-eight, and after Capys, Capetus held the rule for thirteen years. Then Tiberinus reigned for a period of eight years. This king, it is said, was slain in a battle that was fought near a river, and being thrown by his horse into the stream, gave his name to the river, which had previously been called the Albula. Tiberinus’ successor, Agrippa, reigned forty-one years. After Agrippa, Amulius, a tyrannical creature and odious to the gods, reigned nineteen years. Contemptuous of the divine powers, he had contrived imitations of lightning and sounds resembling thunder-claps, with which he proposed to terrify people as if he were a god. But rain and lightning descended upon his house, and the lake beside which it stood rose to an unusual height, so that he was overwhelmed and destroyed with his whole household. And even now when the lake is clear in a certain part, which happens whenever the flow of water subsides and the depths are undisturbed, the ruins of porticoes and other traces of a dwelling appear. Aventius, after whom was named one of the seven hills that are joined to make the city of Rome, succeeded him in the sovereignty and reigned thirty-seven years, [p275] and after him Procas twenty-eight years. Then Amulius, having unjustly possessed himself of the kingdom which belonged to Numitor, his elder brother, reigned forty-two years. But when Amulius had been slain by Romulus and Remus, the sons of a noble maiden, as shall presently be related, Numitor, the maternal grandfather of the youths, after his brother’s death resumed the sovereignty which by law belonged to him. In the next year of Numitor’s reign, which was the three hundred and thirty-second after the taking of Troy, the Albans sent out a colony, under the leadership of Romulus and Remus, and founded Rome, in that year, which was the seventh Olympiad, when Daïcles of Messene was victor in the foot race [752 B.C.], and at Athens Charops was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon.”

    The same writer adds the following words, in which he relates the various accounts of the historians about [the foundation of] the city of Rome [ DionHal1.72 ].

    About the foundation of the city of Rome

    “But as there is great dispute concerning both the time of the building of the city and the founders of it, and as in my opinion none [of the previous writers] has given a convincing account of them, [it is not possible] to give merely a cursory account of these things, as if they were universally agreed on. For Cephalon of Gergis, a very ancient writer, says that the city was built in the second generation after the Trojan war by those who had escaped from Troy with Aeneias, and he names as the founder of it Romus, who was the leader of the colony and one of Aeneias’ sons; he adds that Aeneias had four sons, Ascanius, Euryleon, Romulus and Remus. And Demagoras, Agathymus and many others agree with him as regards both the time and the leader of the colony. But the author of the history of the priestesses at Argos and of what happened in the days of each of them says that Aeneias came into Italy from the land of the Molossians with Odysseus and became the founder of the city, which he named after Romē, one of the Trojan women. He says that this woman, growing weary with wandering, [p277] stirred up the other Trojan women and together with them set fire to the ships. And Damastes of Sigeum and some others agree with him.

    “But Aristotle, the philosopher, relates that some of the Achaeans, while they were doubling Cape Malea on their return from Troy, were overtaken by a violent storm, and being for some time driven out of their course by the winds, wandered over many parts of the sea, till at last they came to this place in the land of the Opicans which is called Latium, lying on the Tyrrhenian sea. And being pleased with the sight of land, they hauled up their ships, stayed there the winter season, and were preparing to sail at the beginning of spring; but when their ships were set on fire in the night and they were unable to sail away, they were compelled against their will to fix their abode in the place where they had landed. This fate, he says, was brought upon them by the captive women they were carrying with them from Troy, who burned the ships, fearing that the Achaeans in returning home would carry them into slavery. Callias, who wrote about the deeds of Agathocles, says that Romē, one of the Trojan women who came into Italy with the other Trojans, married Latinus, the king of the Aborigines. By Latinus she had two sons, Romus and Romulus and Telegonus, who built a city, gave it the name of their mother. Xenagoras, the historian, writes that Odysseus and Circe had three sons, Romus, Antias and Ardeias, who built three cities and called them after their own names. Dionysius of Chalcis names Romus as the founder of the city, [p279] but says that according to some this man was the son of Ascanius, and according to others the son of Emathion. There are others who declare that Rome was built by Romus, the son of Italus and Leucē, the daughter of Latinus.

    “I could cite many other Greek historians who assign different founders to the city, but, not to appear prolix, I shall come to the Roman historians. The Romans, to be sure, have not so much as one single historian or chronicler who is ancient; however, each of their historians has taken something out of ancient accounts that are preserved on tablets in their temples. Some of these say that Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were the sons of Aeneias, others say that they were the sons of a daughter of Aeneias, without going on to determine who was their father; that they were delivered as hostages by Aeneias to Latinus, the king of the Aborigines, when the treaty was made between the inhabitants and the new-comers, and that Latinus, after giving them a kindly welcome, not only looked after them carefully, but, upon dying without male issue, left them his successors to some part of his kingdom. Others say that after the death of Aeneias Ascanius, having succeeded to the entire kingdom of Latinus, divided both the country and the forces of the Latins into three parts, two of which he gave to his brothers, Romulus and Remus. He himself, they say, built Alba and some other towns; Remus built cities which he named Capua, after Capys, his great-grandfather, Anchisa, after his grandfather Anchises, Aeneia (which was afterwards called Janiculum), after his father, and Rome, after himself. This last city was for some time deserted, but upon the arrival of another colony, which the Albans sent out under the leadership of Romulus and Remus, it regained its original status. So that, according to this account, there were two settlements of Rome, one a little after the Trojan war, and the other fifteen generations after the first. And if anyone desires to look more carefully into the remote past, [p281] even a third foundation of Rome will be found, more ancient than these, one that happened before Aeneias and the Trojans came into Italy. This is related by no ordinary historian, but by Antiochus of Syracuse, whom I have mentioned before. He says that when Morges reigned in Latium (which at that time comprehended all of Italy from Tarentum to the coast of Poseidonia), a man came to him who had been banished from Rome. His words are these: ‘When Italus was growing old, Morges reigned. In his reign there came a man who had been banished from Rome; his name was Sicelus.’ According to the Syracusan historian, therefore, an ancient Rome is found even earlier than the Trojan war. However, as he has left it doubtful whether it was situated in the same region where the present city stands or whether some other place happened to be called by this name, I, too, cannot say for certain. But as regards the ancient settlements of Rome, I think that what has already been said is sufficient.

    “As to the last settlement or founding of the city, or whatever we ought to call it, Timaeus of Sicily, following what reckoning I do not know, places it at the same time as the founding of Carthage, that is, in the thirty-eighth year before the first Olympiad [814 B.C.]; Lucius Cincius, a member of the senate, places it about the fourth year of the twelfth Olympiad [729 B.C.], and Quintus Fabius in the first year of the eighth Olympiad [748 B.C.]. Porcius Cato does not give the time according to Greek reckoning, but being as careful as any writer in gathering the date of ancient history, he places its founding four hundred and thirty-two years after the Trojan war; and this time, being compared with the Chronicles of Eratosthenes, corresponds to the first year of the seventh Olympiad [752 B.C.]. That the canons of Eratosthenes are sound I have shown in another treatise, where I have also shown how the Roman chronology is to be synchronized with that of the Greeks.”

    That is what Dionysius says in the first book of his Ancient History of Rome, in which he describes in sequence all the things which happened in the times following the capture of Troy:

    • the escape of Aeneias from Troy, and his arrival in Italy
    • his descendants and successors, who were kings of the Latins, up until Romulus and the foundation of Rome
    • the various accounts of the ancient [p283] [historians] about the foundation of the city of Rome.

    Some writers say that Picus the son of Cronus was the first king in the territory of Laurentium, where Rome is now situated, and that he reigned for 37 years. After him Faunus the son of Picus [was king] for 44 years. In his reign, Heracles arrived from Spain and set up an altar in the Forum Boarium, because he had killed Cacus the son of Vulcanus. Then Latinus was king for 36 years; the Latins derived their name from him. Troy was captured in the 33rd year of his reign. Then Aeneias fought against the Rutuli, and killed Turnus. After he married Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, and founded the city of Lavinium, he was king for 3 years. That is a summary of what we have found in the books of other writers.

    But now let us proceed to another narrator of these events – namely Diodorus, who combined and summarised [the contents of] all libraries in one collection; he records the history of the Romans in his seventh book, as follows.

    From the seventh book of Diodorus, about the ancient origins of the Romans

    Some historians have mistakenly supposed that Romulus [and Remus], who founded the city of Rome, were the sons of the daughter of Aeneias. But this is not true, because there were many kings in the period between Aeneias and Romulus. The foundation of Rome happened in the second year of the 7th Olympiad [751 B.C.], which was 433 years after the Trojan War. Aeneias became king of the Latins three years after the capture of Troy; and after ruling for three years, he disappeared from the sight of men, and was honoured as an immortal. He was succeeded as king by his son Ascanius, who founded the city of Alba Longa; this city was named [p285] after the river that flowed beside it, which was then called Alba, but is now called Tiber.

    The Roman historian Fabius tells a different story about the name of this city. He says that it was foretold to Aeneias, that a four-footed animal would lead him to the site of the city. When he was preparing to sacrifice a pregnant white sow, the sow escaped from his grasp and was chased up a hill, where she gave birth to thirty piglets. Aeneias was amazed by this omen, and in accordance with the prophecy, he attempted to build on the site. But he was warned in a dream, that he should not found the city until thirty years had passed, the same number as the piglets which were born to the sow; and so he gave up the attempt.

    After the death of Aeneias, his son Ascanius became king and after thirty years he founded a settlement on the hill, which he called Alba, after the colour of the sow; for the Latin word for ‘white’ is alba. Ascanius also added another name, Longa, which translated means ‘long’, because the city was narrow in width and stretched for a long way.

    And [Diodorus] goes on to say that that Ascanius made Alba the capital of his kingdom and subdued no small number of the inhabitants round about; he became a famous man and died after a reign of thirty-eight years. At the end of this period, there arose a division among the people, on account of two men who were contending with each other for the throne. For Julius, since he was the son of Ascanius, maintained that his father’s kingdom belonged to him. But Silvius, the brother of Ascanius and, furthermore, a son of Aeneias by Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus (whereas Ascanius was a son of Aeneias by his first wife, who was a Trojan woman), maintained that the kingdom belonged to him. Indeed, after the death of Aeneias, Ascanius had plotted against the life of Silvius; and it was while the latter as a child was being reared by some herdsmen on a mountain, to avoid this plot, that he came to be called Silvius, after the name of the (?) mountain, which the Latins call Silva. In the struggle between the two groups, Silvius finally received the support of the people and gained the throne. However Julius, although he did not acquire the supreme power, was made pontifex maximus and became a kind of second king; [p287] he was the ancestor, so we are told, of the Julian family, which survives in Rome even to this day.

    Silvius achieved nothing worthy of mention in his reign, and died after ruling for 49 years. He was succeeded as king by his son Aeneias Silvius, who ruled for more than 30 years. He was a strong ruler, in government and in war. He subdued the neighbouring regions, and founded the eighteen ancient cities of the Latins, which were:     Tibur, Praeneste, Gabii, Tusculum, Cora, Cometia, Lanuvium, Labicum, Scaptia, Satricum, Aricia, Tellenae, Crustumerium, Caenina, Fregellae, Cameria, Medullia, and Boilum (which some writers call Bola).

    • When Latinus died, his son Alba Silvius was chosen to be king, and he ruled for 38 years.
    • The next king was Epitus (?) Silvius, for 26 years.
    • When he died, Capis was appointed king, and he ruled for 28 years.
    • His son Calpetus was the next king, and ruled for 13 years.
    • Then Tiberius Silvius ruled for 8 years.
      When this king was crossing the river Alba with an army, to fight against the Etruscans, he fell into a whirlpool and died. As a result, the name of the river was changed to Tiber.
    • After the death [of Tiberius], Agrippa became king of the Latins, for 41 years.

    The next king was Arramulius Silvius, who reigned for 19 years. They say that Arramulius was arrogant throughout his life, and became so proud that he claimed to rival the power of Jupiter. When there were continual heavy thunderstorms during autumn time, he ordered all the men in his army [p289] at a given command to strike their swords against their shields, supposing that by this noise he could surpass even thunder. Therefore he was killed by a bolt of lightning, and paid the penalty for his arrogance towards the gods. His whole house was swallowed up by the Alban lake. The Romans who live near the lake today still point out the remains of the royal palace under the lake: some columns which can be seen deep beneath the surface of the water.

    Aventius was chosen to be the next king, and he ruled for 37 years. During a battle against the people who lived around the city, he was trapped in a confined space and killed near a hill, which from his name was called the Aventine hill. After he died, his son Procas Silvius was appointed to be the next king, and ruled for 23 years. After his death, his younger son Amulius seized the throne by force, while his elder brother Numitor was away in a distant country. Amulius reigned for a little over 43 years, and was killed by Remus and Romulus, who founded the city of Rome.

    The individual kings of the Romans are as follows:

    • Aeneias became king of the Latins, in the fourth year after the capture of Troy – for 3 years
    • Ascanius – for 38 years
    • Silvius, the son of Aeneias – for 28 years
    • Aeneias Silvius – for 31 years
    • Latinus Silvius – for 50 years
    • Alba Silvius – for 39 years
    • Epitus Silvius – for 26 years
    • Capis Silvius – for 28 years
    • Calpetus Silvas – for 13 years
    • Tiberius Silvius – for 8 years
    • Agrippa Silvius – for 35 years
    • [Arramulius Silvius – for 19 years]
    • [Aventius – for 37 years]
    • [p291] Procas Silvius – for 23 years
    • Amulius Silvius – for 42 years

    Romulus founded Rome, and became its king in the seventh Olympiad [752-749 B.C.]. From Aeneias up until Romulus, there were (?) 427 years. From the capture of Troy [up until Romulus], there were 431 years.

    The kings, after Romulus who founded Rome, are listed as follows:

    • Romulus – for 38 years
    • Numa Pompilius – for 41 years
    • Tullus Hostilius – for 33 years
    • Ancius Marcus – for 33 years
    • Tarquinius – for 37 years
    • Servilius – for 44 years
    • Tarquinius Superbus – for 24 years

    There were seven kings of the Romans, starting with Romulus, and they ceased after a period of 244 years. From the capture of Troy up until Romulus, there were were (?) 431 years. Altogether, [up until the end of the kings] there were 675 years. Dionysius of Halicarnassus gives a brief account of the dates of these kings, from Romulus to Tarquinius, around the time of the first Olympiad, as follows [ DionHal1.75 ].

    Dionysius of Halicarnassus, about the kings of Rome after Romulus

    If from the expulsion of the kings the time is reckoned back to Romulus, the first ruler of the city, it amounts to two hundred and forty-four years. This is known from the order in which the kings succeeded one another and the number of years each of them ruled.

    • After the death of Romulus the city was a year without a king.
    • Then Numa Pompilius, who was chosen by the army, reigned for forty-three years;
    • after Numa, Tullus Hostilius thirty-three years;
    • [p293] and his successor, Ancus Marcius, twenty-four years;
    • after Marcius, Lucius Tarquinius, called Priscus, thirty-eight years;
    • Servius Tullius, who succeeded him, forty-four years.
    • And the slayer of Servius, Lucius Tarquinius, the tyrannical prince who, from his contempt of justice, was called Superbus, extended his reign to the twenty-fifth year.

    As the reigns, therefore, of the kings amount to two hundred and forty-four years or sixty-one Olympiads, it follows necessarily that Romulus, the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first year of the seventh Olympiad [752 B.C.], when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon. For the count of the years requires this; and the number of years that each king reigned is shown in (?) that book. This, therefore, is the account given by those who lived before me and adopted by me concerning the time of the settlement of the city which now rules supreme.

    That is what Dionysius says.

    However, after the death of Tarquinius the Romans no longer had kings to rule them. Instead of kings, first they appointed Brutus [and Collatinus] to be consuls; then [they appointed] tribunes of the plebs; then dictators, who were generals; and then consuls again. I think it would be superfluous to list the magistrates of each year here, because it would be an enormous number of names. And if I described their achievements in detail, my account would stretch to a great length. Such detail is unnecessary for my current purpose; and so I think it is appropriate to leave these magistrates, and everything connected with them, to another chronicle: that is, the consuls who came after Tarquinius, the tribunes of the plebs [p295] and the dictators who governed the city of Rome, during the years up until the time of Caesar. After these remarks, we will return to the reign of the first emperor. From the death of Tarquinius up until the time of Julius Caesar, there was an intervening period of 115 Olympiads, which is the equivalent of 460 years.

    [This period is calculated as follows.] Tarquinius died at the end of the 67th Olympiad [509 B.C.]. Caesar became emperor at the start of the 183rd Olympiad [48 B.C.]. In between them, there was an interval of 460 years. From the 7th Olympiad [752 B.C.], when the city of Rome was founded, [until the death of Tarquinius] there was a period of 244 years. Therefore, from the foundation of Rome until the time of Julius Caesar, there was a total of 704 years, which is the equivalent of 176 Olympiads.

    These totals are confirmed by the account in the chronicle of Castor, where he gives a summary of the dates, and writes as follows.

    [From the writings] of Castor, about the kings of Rome

    We have named the kings of the Romans one by one, starting from Aeneias son of Anchises, when he became king of the Latins, and finishing with Amulius Silvius, who was killed by Romulus, the son of his niece Rhea. To them we will add Romulus and the others, who ruled Rome after him up until Tarquinius Superbus, for a period of 244 years. After these kings, we will give a separate list of the consuls, starting from Lucius Junius Brutus, and finishing with Marcus Valerius Messalla and Marcus Piso, who were consuls when Theophemus was archon at Athens [61 B.C.]. Altogether, [these consuls governed] for 460 years.

    That is what Castor says. Next it is appropriate to add a list of the emperors of the Romans, starting from Julius Caesar; and to mention the consuls for each year, attaching to them the numbers of the Olympiads…. [The Armenian manuscript breaks off at this point]

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